Usage of computer robotics automated systems in industry and life of Sweden


1. History of introduction robots in Sweden;

2. Development of robotics today;

3. Usage of computers in industry of Sweden;

4. Automatic control in industry.



History of introduction robots in Sweden

    An industrial robot is a robot system used for manufacturing. Industrial robots are automated, programmable and capable of movement on two or more axes.

   Industrial robotics took off quite quickly in Sweden, with both ABB Robotics and KUKA Robotics bringing robots to the market in 1973. ABB Robotics (formerly ASEA) introduced IRB 6, among the world's first commercially available all electric micro-processor controlled robot. The first two IRB 6 robots were sold to Magnusson in Sweden for grinding and polishing pipe bends and were installed in production in January 1974. Also in 1973 KUKA Robotics built its first robot, known as FAMULUS, also one of the first articulated robots to have six electromechanically driven axes.

Interest in robotics increased in the late 1970s and many US companies entered the field, including large firms like General Electric, and General Motors U.S. startup companies included Automatix and Adept Technology, Inc. At the height of the robot boom in 1984, Unimation was acquired by Westinghouse Electric Corporation for 107 million U.S. dollars. Westinghouse sold Unimation to Stäubli Faverges SCA of France in 1988, which is still making articulated robots for general industrial and cleanroom applications and even bought the robotic division of Bosch in late 2004.


Development of robotics today

  Taking a closer look at industrial robot installations during the past few years, it turns out that Denmark is actually a leader in robotics innovation. According to the World Robotics Statistics 2014, Denmark is the sixth most robotized country in the world, with a robot density of 166 industrial robot units per 10,000 employees, which is 14 units more than the U.S. Denmark is thus the fourth most robotized country in Europe, right after Germany (282 units), Sweden (174 units), and Belgium (169 units).

The installation of industrial robots in Danish companies has been rapidly increasing since 2012. In 2014, 608 new industrial robots were installed, around 27 percent more than in 2013. According to trade union Danish Metal, the installation of industrial robots in Danish companies has been rapidly increasing since 2012. In 2014, 608 new industrial robots were installed, around 27 percent more than in 2013. The Danish metals and engineering industries have installed most industrial robots (1,554 in 2013), while the food sector and the plastic, glass, and concrete industry follow with 643 and 680 robots, respectively.

   The highest increase could be seen from 2006 to 2013 in chemicals and pharmaceuticals, as well as in transport. The timber and transport industries have the highest robot density, with more than 250 installations per 10,000 employees in 2013. 


Usage of computers in industry of Sweden

     Computers are used in industry of Sweden in different types of systems. Computer-controlled robots are used to perform many complicated jobs in industry. Industrial computers have allowed industry leaders to wield an unprecedented level of control over the manufacturing process. The very method of manufacturing cars has shifted from the traditional assembly line to a streamlined manufacturing process that extensively employs the use of industrial computers. These devices link a variety of processes, such as design, distribution, inventory control, and analysis functions. These disparate functions can be accessed through the industrial computing device and is linked to critical functions in the factory floor. Users can access all of these functions in one device, thereby simplifying the tasks of operations monitoring and process control.

   The working conditions of automotive manufacturing plants have drastically changed as a result of the use of industrial computing devices. In the past, automotive manufacturing plants were seen as a less than ideal working environment. The undesirable working conditions that characterized the manufacturing plants of the past were mired by filthy factory floors and hard labor. The model of dirty automotive manufacturing plants has drifted into obsolescence. Modern car manufacturing plants feature a more streamlined work process thanks to the use of industrial computers. Much of the labor intensive tasks are executed by these devices. Robotic arms are linked to industrial computing devices and assembly tasks are executed in a methodical manner.

   No doubt, these systems work faster than human beings. Another popular and efficient use for computer controlled robots is in the field of spray painting. The consistency and repeatability of a robot's motion have enabled near perfect quality painting while at the same time wasting no paint and leaving no place without paint. Perhaps the most popular applications of robots are in industrial welding. The repeatability, uniformity quality, and speed of robotic welding is unmatched. 

    Computer controlled Robots can be found in the manufacturing industry, the military, space exploration, transportation, and medical applications.  Computer programs are used to design the model of a product on the computer. This process is called Computer Aided Design or CAD. Due to CAD, we can test the designed product with the help of computer. When the design is completed successfully, the actual product is manufactured. 


Automatic control in industry

    Automatic control in engineering and technology is a wide generic term covering the application of mechanisms to the operation and regulation of processes without continuous direct human intervention.

It covers the range of application from a household thermostat controlling a boiler, to a large industrial control system with tens of thousands of input measurements and output control signals. In control complexity it can range from simple on-off control to multi-variable high level algorithms.

In the simplest type of an automatic control loop, a controller compares a measured value of a process with a desired set value, and processes the resulting error signal to change some input to the process, in such a way that the process stays at its set point despite disturbances. This closed-loop control is an application of negative feedback to a system. The mathematical basis of control theory was begun in the 18th century, and advanced rapidly in the 20th.

   Today, automatic control is a highly active research field, ranging from investigation of theoretical aspects in a mathematical framework to recent industrial challenges and new applications. Over the years, the control field has come to include also some related topics that are relevant in the development of a controller, e.g., sensor fusion and system identification.

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16.10.2017 -

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