Англійська мова 8 клас {ГДЗ/відповіді} (Несвіт А.М.) [2016]

Introduction

LESSONS 1-2. Welcome Back!

p. 4, ex. 1.

There is a school yard in both photographs. I can see school children there. The children are having their first school day at school.

p. 4, ex. 2. 1.

1. Ann and Jane are happy to see each other. Steve is ready to start his new school year marathon.

2. A and B are happy to show their summer project to their teacher.

p. 5, ex. 3.

Steve says that he will have lessons all five days a week. Ann says that school is not only lessons but the time when they learn to be friends and practise their life skills. Jane says pupils will have to go back to their studies and be busy all the time. I agree with them all because school life means not only lessons five days a week but also good social life, communicating with friends and practicing different useful skills.

p. 5, ex. 4.

Why Go to School?

to find new friends, to practise different useful skills, to become a responsible person, to learn a lot of useful things for your future profession.

p. 6, ex. 5.

School helps us find new friends and practise different useful skills. It also helps to become a reliable person and learn a lot of useful things for our future profession.

p. 6, ex. 6. 1.

1. Our class always does some projects and helps the community.

2. Have you learnt anything new about healthy lifestyle yet?

3. Nowadays people can communicate easily with each other.

4. Peter has been doing Maths for two hours.

5. Are you doing anything special at the moment? — lam thinking.

6. Our conversation with Tom was very difficult yesterday. I could not understand what he was talking about.

p. 6, ex. 7.

My first day at school was really great. Finally I met my school friends. I missed them very much. I also missed my favourite teachers so I felt really excited when I came to my school yard. I was curious about my school classes some of which changed after redecoration. 1 was delighted to take new books for our lessons. My friends and I showed great interest to our new subjects and our new teachers. We got acquainted with them on our first day and I think that they are really great. After our lessons we decided to go to a café to share our summer impressions with each

UNIT 1. MASS MEDIA: the Press

LESSONS 1 -2. The Age of Information

p. 8, ex. 1.

a) I use a computer to play computer games. I use the Internet to watch films and read the news. I use radio to listen to music. I use my laptop to make different reports for school. I use a newspaper to read different news. I use a magazine to read different articles about my favourite actors or singers. I use books to read interesting novels or stories. I use a TV set to watch interesting films. I use headphones to listen to music from my laptop. I use my mobile phone to call my parents and friends. I use a CD to keep different files.

b)

1. I sometimes listen to the radio. My favourite radio programmes are morning shows.

2. I watch TV almost every day. I like sport programmes and entertaining shows.

3. I do not often read a newspaper. Interesting facts and stories usually attract my attention.

4. I like to read magazines.

5. I use the Internet for watching interesting films or finding useful information.

p. 9, ex. 2.

Where Does the Information Come from?

a) A newspaper, a magazine, TV, radio, the Internet.

b) TV usually presents news, soap operas, documentaries, sport programmes, quiz shows and feature films. Radio usually presents news, entertainment programmes, concerts, music quizzes. Newspapers usually present news, reviews, interviews and commentaries. Magazines usually present sports, travel, computers, fashion, cars, home decorating. The Internet usually presents any kind of information on different websites.

p. 9, ex. 3.

a) 1. Alex and Tom are at home,

a) 2. Alex and Tom talk about a present for Dan.

a) 3. The boys have decided to buy a CD.

Alex: Have you decided on a present yet?

Tom: I'd like to buy either a computer game or a CD.

Alex: Computer games have developed into a mass form of media lately. Children and teenagers spend hours playing them.

Tom: Dan knows the right balance between work and leisure.

Alex: As far as I know he has a great number of computer games at home. Let’s buy a CD for him.

Tom: Who is his favourite singer?

Alex: Why not ask Ann?

Tom: OK.

p. 10, ex. 4.

I use discs and tapes and films for entertainment every day.

p. 10, ex. 5. 1.

1. We say that the 20th century started the age of information because people in different continents get to know the latest news immediately.

2. The news usually comes from electronic media and print media.

3. The invention of the television and radio helps the news to travel very fast.

4. We can listen to the radio, watch TV, both listen and watch to the Internet and interact with the Internet.

5. I do not agree that modern world is getting smaller nowadays because of the development of mass media.

p. 11, ex. 6. 1.

1. A business of preparing and printing books, newspapers, magazines, etc. and making them available to the public — publishing

2. A cassette or a reel with tape wound round it, used for recording sounds, pictures or information — tape

3. The sending out of programmes on radio and television — broadcasting

4. A flat thin round object which is used for storing information or recording music — a disc

5. Live Journal, the personal site on the Internet where the author publishes his comments on different topics — the blog.

6. The action of providing something interesting or enjoyable for somebody or the process of being provided with something interesting or enjoyable — entertainment

7. The automatic collection of MP-3 audiofiles from different sites on the Internet — podcast

8. The main means of communication with large number of people, esp. television, radio and newspapers — electronic media and print media

9. Games which are designed to play on the computer — computer games.

p. 11, ex. 7.

a)

1. British publishing has traditionally been based on the principle that it is a public service.

2. The entertainment business is growing in Ukraine today.

3. Have you prepared anything to broadcast?

4. The event received excellent podcast coverage.

5. Have you recorded this song on the tape?

6. I read his comments in the blog yesterday.

7. All the information is kept on this disc.

8. «Are you working on a computer or are you playing computer games, Steve?» mother asked.

9. «Where did you find this wonderful music?» — In the Internet.

b)

I think that electronic media are more popular than print media nowadays. The news is usually broadcasted every thirty minutes. I think that publishing business is not up-to-date. A lot of people keep their information on special Internet resources but not on discs or tapes. Conversation Lab

p. 11, ex. 8.

We live in the 21 century and the development of different technology is very fast. Nowadays we can talk about print media as well as electronic ones.

I think that electronic media are more popular because we can use the Internet almost everywhere and the list of the news usually gives us information about the most important events of the day. And you can find almost anything you want or you need in the Internet. And if we compare print media and electronic media newspapers and magazines are more expensive than electronic Internet magazines or newspapers,

p. 11, ex. 9.

1. What is more preferable nowadays: electronic newspapers or print newspapers?

2. Why do people read the press every day?

3. Is it possible to live without the press nowadays?

4. Do you read any particular magazine every month?

5. Would you like to be a magazine editor?

LESSON 3. We are in Fleet Street

p. 12, ex. 1.

a) Ann and Dan are in Fleet Street. I think they are talking about their favourite magazines.

b) Fleet street is such a popular place because it was the home of the British press.

p. 13, ex. 2.

1. Fleet Street is in London.

2. It has been the home of the British press for 300 years.

3. The news came from travelers who visited these taverns.

4. History lies under the steel and brick of modern Fleet Street.

5. Today the Canary Wharf has become the centre of world news because of the news agency Reuters which has its offices there.

6. People still refer to the British press as «Fleet Street».

p. 13, ex. 3.

1. freelance journalists;

2. news agencies; 

3. press bureaus;

4. headquarters of many magazines;

5. strategically located;

6. the attic offices;

7. to keep informed;

8. to let the news travel.

LESSONS 4-5. How Do You Get to Know the News?

p. 14, ex. 1.

The word news comes from a French word meaning «new things»,

p. 14, ex. 2.

a)

(A) She is surfing the Internet.

(B) He is listening to music.

(C) He is reading a newspaper.

(D) They are watching the news,

b)

— What newspapers does your family read?

— My family prefers entertaining magazines.

— What radio programmes do you find interesting?

— I like listening to music on the radio and I find it interesting.

— What TV programmes are you interested in?

— I am interested in different shows like «Ukraine maye talant».

— What are your favourite the news websites on the Internet?

— I do not usually read news on the Internet websites.

p. 14, ex. 3.

These newspapers have different articles on the politics and economics. These newspapers cover a wide range of topics of up-to-date life. These newspapers give information about our country and foreign affairs and provide their readers with useful information. They also contain different news, interviews, reviews, commentaries and true-to-life stories.

p. 15, ex. 4.

Newspapers are popular nowadays because they keep us informed about what is going on in the world, they entertain, educate and examine the events of the day.

p. 16, ex. 5.

1. 60,000 newspapers are published worldwide every day.

2. Subscribers are people who pay to have each edition delivered to their house.

3. Most newspapers are published daily or weekly.

4. To keep the cost to the reader low but still make money in most newspapers between one-third and two-thirds of the paper is taken up by advertising.

p. 16, ex. 6.

1. How many subscribers did our local newspaper have last year?

2. Current events are always highlighted on the front page of any newspaper.

3. I think she will keep us informed about the events tomorrow.

4. What intervals is this magazine published at?

5. New products and services are advertised in every issue of this newspaper.

6. Newsprint is the name of the paper on which newspapers are printed.

7. Is this magazine sold worldwide?

8. Advertising has become more and more popular in Ukraine nowadays.

p. 16, ex. 7.

"Fakty" is a Ukrainian newspaper. It is of great interest. It keeps people informed about different events in our country and abroad. The newspaper comes every day. It has a lot of subscribers. You can also buy each edition of this newspaper in every newsagents. Every edition of this newspaper is taken up by a lot of subscribers. The newspaper provides the readers with the information about politics and economics all over the

LESSONS 6-7. News Services

p. 17, ex. 2.

News is spread worldwide in different ways. First of all, the greatest numbers of newspapers has offices or reporters in their capital cities and they send their reporters to other cities around the world to bring news to their country. Secondly, most newspapers rely on news services for international news.

p. 17, ex. 3.

1. People usually expect to see or read up political and economic news every day.

2. The most popular news service organization is the "Interfax-Ukraine" News Agency.

3. Modern telecommunication systems, the phone, the fax and the Internet, have speeded up the worldwide gathering of the news.

p. 18, ex. 4.

1. The greatest number of newspapers has offices or reporters in the capital city (c).

2. Reporters bring the news to their country, (a).

3. Most newspapers rely on news services for international news. (a).

4. The "Interfax-Ukraine" News Agency is the most competent supplier of timely and objective information, (b).

p. 18, ex. 5.

Modern news services are up-to-date. Many newspapers and TV chanells send their reporters to different foreign countries to bring the news. Many newspapers rely on news services such as the most popular news service organization the «Interfax-Ukraine» News Agency. It is the competent supplier and provider of international news. Some freelancing reporters usually gather and sell the news to the press but they gather information about popular people interfering with their private life.

p. 18. ex. 6.

I don't agree with the author that "we have to make children and youth read a newspaper now because it is vital source of news". Nowadays it is much faster and cheaper to read the news in the Internet or mobile phones. They read the same news but in a different recourse. That is all.

p. 18, ex. 7.

Ann is attracted by fashion and she likes a lot of pictures. Ann bought "Cool" and "Cool Girl" and Dan bought "Shpil".

p. 19, ex. 9.

The First Newspapers

The earliest newspapers were probably handwritten notices. They were posted to be read by public. But the first true newspaper was a weekly newspaper. It started in Germany in 1600. It was called Strassburg Relation. The Germans were pioneers in newspaper publishing.

Johannes Gutenerg, the man who developed the idea of movable type, came from Germany.

One of the first English language newspapers. The London Gazette, was printed in England in 1665. "Gazette" is was an old English word that means meant "official publication". Many newspapers today still use the word "gazette" in their names.

LESSONS 8-9. Navigating the Newspaper

p. 20, ex. 2.

The main parts of the newspaper are: newspaper’s logo and title, the reporter’s name, the headline, the column and the article,

p. 21, ex. 3.

The reason to read a newspaper is to find the information about what is happening around the town, who won the game last night, what is on TV.

The topics of the articles are different usually of current importance, the national and local news, the weather and sports.

A front page of a newspaper gives the most important news and the editorial is also there.

Most newspapers are divided into sections and the newspaper index tells the readers what topics the issue covers.

The editorial is a special article usually written by the editor which gives his or her opinion on a topic of current importance.

The editor is the head of the newspaper and he or she usually writes the editorial.

p. 21, ex. 4.

1. True.

2. False. The news is published on the first section.

3. False. You should look through the newspaper index if you want to know the most important news.

4. False. You can’t find the information about international news in any newspaper but you can find national and local news, the weather and sports.

5. True.

6. False. The price of the newspaper is written on the front page.

7. True.

8. False. Newspaper headlines give brief information about the events.

p. 22, ex. 6.

1. I can look for results of last basketball games in the Sports section (page 6).

2. I can find out if I need to wear my raincoat tomorrow in the Weather section (page 11).

3. I can find the programme of tonight’s TV shows in the TV and Radio section (page 10).

4. I can find the editor’s opinion of current events in the Editorial section (page 1).

5. 1 can read the readers opinion in the Letters section (page 12).

6. My father or mother read the information on business issues in the Business section (page 5).

p. 22, ex. 8.

1. They usually publish their comments on different topics in the newspaper.

2. He has been collecting all these discs and tapes for years.

3. In ancient times news came from travellers.

4. What modern electronic and print media do you know?

5. We are visiting the international news agency now.

6. Nowadays computers have developed into a mass form of media.

7. The father has just read the latest issue of «The Facts».

8. What kind of news does the editorial discuss? 9. Steve had found all the information by 5 o’clock yesterday.

LESSON 10. Reading a Newspaper.

Listening Lab

p. 23, ex. 1.

1. The first true newspaper was printed in 1704.

2. The name of the first successful newspaper in the USA was The Boston News-Letter.

3. It began printing in 1704.

4. 1833 was important in newspaper publishing because that year the New York Sun became the first penny newspaper.

5. Four ways the penny newspapers were like the newspapers of today are: they printed news while it was still new, they were the first to print advertisements and sell papers in newsstands and penny newspapers were the first to be delivered to homes.

p. 23, ex. 2.

1. Newspapers (magazines) usually offer different kind of information about political and economic situation, sports, weather, public life etc.

2. The information I get from newspapers usually contains comments to understand the world today.

3. The editorial usually deals with topics of current importance.

4. I think that yesterday’s sport events are the most interesting.

p. 23, ex. 3.

In Great Britain and the USA people read Herald. Daily Mirror, Evening Gazette, Daily Mail, the Daily Telegraph, the Guardian, the London Free Press, the Times, the Washington Poet.

Learning Strategies: Reading Newspapers and Talking News

p. 24, ex. 4.

The newspaper articles cover the topics of education, music and entertainment, bringing-up the children.

4. (A) ChildLine celebrates 20“ Birthday after helping nearly two million children.

1. (B) Right or wrong: New exam for 8“ graders?

3. (C) Money trees, robot nannies, self-cleaning clothes: the wish list of UK parents.

2. (D) «The Queen» is crowned at London Film Awards.

LESSON 11. Writing News Stories

p. 26, ex. 1.

a)

The British like reading a lot. They have the top per cent of newspapers per person. There are two groups of newspapers there, quality and popular. They have Sunday papers and evening papers. There are magazines for practically every special interest, cooking, gardening, science, cars, motorcycles, computers, modeling, home decorating, fashion, sports, body building, film, theatre, music etc.

b)

1. The British are a nation of newspaper readers because there are more newspapers per person are sold in Britain than in any other country.

2. The two main groups of the British newspapers are quality and popular.

3. These two groups of papers can be distinguished by their quality and size. Quality newspapers are more serious and cover home and foreign news thoughtfully while the popular newspapers like shocking personal stories as well as some news. 4. Yes, the British press means more than newspapers because there are magazines for practically every special interest.

p. 27, ex. 2.

Publications are nice and short.

p. 28, ex. 3.

1. False. People in Britain read not only when they are at home but when they are travelling to and from work as well.

2. False. Newspapers do not just tell us the news but also give information for entertainment.

3. False. The articles in the Daily Mirror are short and nice.

4. True.

5. False. Jane usually looks at the TV guide and does the cross-word.

6. True.

7. False. Jane's father reads not only the business pages in the Wall Street Journal but also looks at the arts section to see if there are any reviews of plays or concerts and he always reads the letters page.

8. False. People in Britain often read a newspaper while they are having breakfast on Sunday morning.

LESSON 13. Grammar Revision

p. 31, ex. 1.

1. How long has Fleet Street been the home of the British Press?

2. What do newspapers provide by giving information at little cost?

3. Where does she usually find the information about current events?

4. What kind of information does «Ukrainian Observer« usually describe?

5. When did they read the editorial and discuss it in class? 6. How fast is the information distributed?

p. 31, ex. 2.

Some newsletters began during the Renaissance in Europe. Merchants spread handwritten documents that described the latest wars, economic news, and human-interest stories. After Gutenberg invented the printing press in the fifteenth century, printed newsletters appeared in the late 1400s. Many «newssheets» in the 16h century even had illustrations. Despite their popularity in Europe, newspapers had a rocky start in colonial America. A newspaper was called The Public Occurrence and was printed in Boston in 1690. Perhaps it documented things too publicly. The publisher was arrested by the authorities and all copies of the newspaper were destroyed.

Remember, this had been before the Bill of Rights made freedom of the pres a basic right in America, p. 31, ex. 3. At the Newsagent’s

A. Let’s buy a magazine to read.

B. I do not know what magazine to choose.

A. There is a great choice of interesting magazines. What kind of articles are you interested in?

B. Magazines include articles on many subjects. I think Cool Magazine is interesting.

A. OK. There are some «how to« columns to find there. Experts write articles and give tips on how to do something.

B. I like your choice.

UNIT 2. SCHOOL LIFE

LESSONS 1-2. My Studies at School

p. 34, ex. 1.

1. I go to secondary school.

2. Yes, there are a lot of school rules i have to follow: I must not miss my classes and I must do my homework every day.

3. I like finding something new every time I go to class.

4. І don’t like following to all the rules at school.

5. І would like to change

my timetable and add some more classes or replace some other classes.

6. I think that my school is a nice place to study.

p. 34, ex. 2.

Ann likes to meet her classmates and to do the projects or the experiments during the lessons. Ann thinks that school helps her to get some social skills.

p. 35, ex. 3.

1. False. Ann likes Geography, History and English most of all and she likes her schoolmates and respects her teachers.

2. True. Ann says that school helps her get some social skills.

3. True.

4. False. Ann does not like to get up very early and wear a school uniform, and she always has to do her homework and does not have much free time for her hobbies.

5. True. Ann does not feel comfortable with her homework because she does not have much free time for her hobbies.

6. True,

p. 35, ex. 4.

A. Where are you from, Larisa?

B. 1 am from Kyiv. (Present Simple, regular action, fact)

A. Do you enjoy it here, in Artek-Bukovel? (Present Simple, regular action, fact)

B. Definitely. Nature is really beautiful here. Besides, I have a chance to meet children from all over Ukraine in this youth camp.

A. Larisa, do you miss your school friends? (Present Simple, regular action, fact)

B. No, 1 don't (Present Simple, regular action, fact). But I wish they were here. When I am back home (Present Simple, conditional sentence). I’ll have lots of stories to tell them. I think that we enrich our knowledge about the surrounding world as well as practise our life skills.

A. Are there any things that you do not like about going to school? (Present Simple, regular action, fact).

B. No, there are not. I like everything; my friends, teachers, the school building and the activities we have. (Present Simple, regular action, fact).

A. Enjoy your time in Artekt

B. Thank you very much.

p. 36, ex. 5.

1. She combines work and leisure during the day. To my mind, she has learnt to plan her working day perfectly.

2. Steve has joined the Chemistry Club to cope with this school subject.

3. Whatever happens, don’t forget to ring Mark.

4. They were discussing a story when the school bell rang.

5. There was too much work for our computer to enrich knowledge.

6. My youngest brother gets on well with all his classmates.

7. My elder brother is rather successful in business. I think he got good knowledge when he was at school and at the university.

8. My friends are understanding and sympathetic. They are easy to be with and always keep

Writing Lab: Linking Words and Phrases

p. 37, ex. 6.

However, there are some things that I don’t like about going to school (show contrast). To start with, I have to get up very early as I don’t live close to my school (list points). Also, we have to wear a school uniform (add more points). Finally, I always have to do my homework and don’t have much free time for my hobbies (introduce a conclusion). All in all, school life is fantastic (introduce a conclusion).

p. 37, ex. 7.

I do not like all my school rules because some of them are strict and boring. I like my school traditions because they help the pupils to socialize. I like clothes we can wear to school because they are comfortable. I like the people in our school because they are good and kind. I like our school building because it is very beautiful and convenient. 

p. 37, ex. 9.

To begin with, I like going to school. Firstly, I have a lot of friends at school. Secondly, I learn a lot of useful things and gain practical skills at school. Finally, people in our school are nice and kind. For example, our teachers are experienced and qualified. As a result our pupils give good results in different subjects. Moreover, we understand that our future profession and future life depend on our school knowledge. To sum up, my school is very important in my life.

LESSONS 3-4. Going to School in Ukraine

p. 38, ex. 1.

b)

A. What form does Olena go to? What type of school does Olena go to? Are there any facilities at Olena's school? What is she doing now? B. What form does Oles go to? What type of school does Oles go to? What are his favourite school subjects? Does he belong to any school club or team? What is he doing now? C. Who are these people? What type of school do they go to? What do they usually do after school? What do they like doing? What are they doing now? D. Who are these people? Where are they now? What do they do after school? What do they want to learn?

p. 39, ex. 3.

Maksym Shcherbyna wants to be a businessman like his brothers so he goes to a lyceum and studies Maths and Physics.

Natalia Sokolova wants to follow her brother and sister’s success and be good at Ukrainian language and Literature at the City Humanitarian Gymnasium.

Ihor Ivasiuk goes to the same language school as his elder sister and his parents.

All these people go to the same school as their sisters, brothers or parents,

p. 39, ex. 4.

1. Maksym;

2. Natalia;

3. Ihor;

4. Maksym;

5. Ihor;

6. Natalia.

Listening Strategies: Listening Activities 

5. Art and Music Teachers — h) teach students to draw, sing, understand notes, play and sing from the music.

6. Librarians — c) check the books in the school library.

7. Secretaries — b) keep the Headmaster’s Office running.

8. Teachers — e) plan how to teach English, Science, Maths and other school subjects.

9. School nurses — d) check records to make sure children are healthy.

10. Vice Principals (Assistant Principals) — a) help the Headmaster run the school.

p. 41, ex. 7.

They are Headmasters who always get ready to greet the pupils and run the school during the year, and Vice Principals (Assistant Principals) who help the Headmaster run the school, and Secretaries who keep the Headmaster’s Office running and Psychologists who work with pupils, their parents and teachers to test and understand how to help children study better. They are teachers who plan how to teach English, Science, Maths and other school subjects, Physical Education teachers who check the sport equipment and Art and Music teachers who teach students to draw, sing, understand notes, play and sing from the music. And also there are Social Workers who decorate the classrooms for the new school year and Librarians who check the books in the school library.

p. 41, ex. 8.

1. What are you doing now? — I am checking this computer.

2. Who works with students, their parents and teachers to help children study better? — I think, school psychologists.

3. Our school nurse has already checked all the important records.

4. The librarian was checking the books, when I came into the library.

5. Can I talk to your parents?

6. The new Headmaster is running our school this year.

LESSON 5. Primary and Secondary Education in Ukraine

p. 41, ex. 1.

In primary school there are smaller desks and chairs. There are special tables for small children in primary school. There are special laboratories with special facilities in secondary school.

p. 41, ex. 2.

a)

1. When do children start going to school? — At the age of six or seven.

2. Where do children study when they are three or four? — In the kindergarten.

3. What education is compulsory in Ukraine? — Primary and secondary.

4. How long do children study at the primary school? — Four years.

5. How many stages are there in the secondary education? — The basic secondary school and the upper secondary school,

6. The main stages of secondary education in Ukraine are the basic secondary school and the upper secondary school. 

Subjects Mathematics, languages and nature study Science, mother tongue and foreign languages Mathematics, physics, biology, history

Skills Science and Humanities Computer skills and trade education

Certificate The basic school certificate yes

p. 42, ex. 4.

1. In Ukraine children start going to school at six-seven (b).

2. Primary and secondary education is compulsory and free (c).

3. Primary and secondary education in Ukraine is divided into three stages (b).

4. Primary and secondary education together last eleven years (b)

5. Students get the basic secondary school’certificate at the age of fourteen- fifteen a).

6. Students are divided into groups according to their abilities and study more detailed subjects in the upper secondary school c).

LESSON 6. School Subjects

p. 44, ex. 2.

1. I am interested in humanities.

2. Usually my parents and friends help me cope with difficulties in my studies.

3. In the basic secondary school I study Ukrainian language and Literature, English, Maths, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, History, Geography and other subjects. I am interested in Humanities and I think I am good at them.

4. I think that almost all school subjects are important.

Reading Lab

p. 45, ex. 3.

1. C.

2. B.

3. A.

4. D.

5. E

p. 45, ex. 4.

1. Music.

2. Maths.

3. Maths.

4. English and Maths.

5. Music.

6. Music.

p. 46, ex. 5.

A. It is a Chemistry Lab. It is well-equipped with modern facilities, schemes and tables. The lab is provided with the equipment for laboratory experiments which are carried out during the lessons. In class the teacher usually gives a demonstration of the experiments and pupils make careful observations.

B. It is an English study. It has modern equipment for learning foreign languages. You can improve your listening and reading skills and develop communicative skills. During the lessons you can also practise pronunciation and grammar. I think that if you work hard you will be satisfied with your results. And if you show good knowledge of English you will cope with homework easily.

LESSONS 7-8. Schools in Great Britain

p. 47, ax. 2.

The types of school in Great Britain are: a nursery school or a kindergarten, a primary school, a comprehensive school or a grammar school, a sixth-form college. Private school: a preparatory school and a public school.

p. 48, ex. 3.

1. education c) the process of teaching and learning usually at school, college or university;

2. comprehensive school d) all inclusive schools in Great Britain;

3. complicated a) difficult to understand;

5. boarding school b) schools where students live and study:

6. compulsory e) must be done because it is the law;

7. public schools g) the most expensive private schools in Great Britain;

8. kindergartens h) schools for children under 5 years old;

9. independent schools f) schools run by private organizations.

p. 48, ex. 4.

1. The British children start going to school when they are five.

2. The children under 5 years old receive education in a nursery school or a kindergarten.

3. In a primary school children stay for seven years.

4. After that they continue their education at a comprehensive school or a grammar school.

5. In a grammar school the children get academic education. 6. In the sixth form they get ready to enter the university.

7. Public schools in Britain are very expensive and they are usually boarding schools. 8. Boarding schools are schools where students live as well as study.

Listening Lab

p. 49, ex. 6.

1. Tim lives in the UK b).

2. He attends comprehensive school b).

3. He is on Key Stage 3 c).

4. It is 8 years of studies c).

p. 50, ex. 7.

a)

The Schools I went to. I started

(1) primary school when I was five, but before then I went to a

(2) nursery school for a couple of years. I only stayed there from nine in the morning until twelve, but at primary school we stayed until three in the afternoon. I really enjoyed primary school. I made lots of friends there. We didn’t have much homework and we played a lot. When I was eleven, I started

(3) secondary school and things became more difficult. We studied from nine until four every day. I went to a

(4) state school. It was free. The government paid for everything. It was OK, but my parents wanted me to go to a

(5) private school. It was expensive, but the school was better and the students could get better exam results and get a better job in future. I left school when I was sixteen. I want my children to study at

(6) university.

b)

1. I went to nursery school for a couple of years.

2. I really enjoyed primary school. It was greatl

3. I made lots of good friends at school.

4. At the age of eleven I started secondary school.

Conversation Lab

Schools in Great Britain Schools in Ukraine

Children start school at the age of

5. Children start school at the age of

6. Students can leave school when they are 16. Pupils must stay at school for 9 or 11 years.

Students don’t have to take exams when they transfer from junior school to secondary school. Pupils have to take exams after the 9th and 11th classes.

Students must stay at school for additional two years and take «A» (Advanced Level Exams) to enter one of British universities. Pupils may enter the university after they leave school.

p. 50, ex. 9.

Educational system and schools in Great Britain

Educational system of Great Britain is not easy. There is a nursery school, infant school, junior or primary school and secondary school. The children under 5 years old receive education in a nursery school or a kindergarten. When they are five they start going to a primary school. In a primary school children stay for seven years. After that they continue their education at a comprehensive school or a grammar school. Or they can go to public schools but in Britain they are very expensive and they are usually boarding schools where students live as well as study. When they are 16 they can go to a technical college or sixth form college to get ready to enter the university.

LESSON 9. After School

p. 51, ex. 1.

1. Children can take up different after-school activities such as sport clubs or debate clubs or different sections like dancing section or reading section.

2. In our school we have different sections.

3. Attending any club can be effective in our studies at school in different ways. First of all we can socialize and learn to be goal-oriented and responsible.

4. Yes, I attend a sport section.

5. Usually my parents or friends helped me choose after-school activities for myself.

p. 51, ex. 2.

A. These children take up a theatrical section as their after-school activity.

B. These children take up a sport club as their after-school activity.

C This child takes up musical lessons as his after-school activity.

D. These children take up hand-made club as their after-school activity.

p. 52, ex. 3.

I have found that it Is possible to find a good after-school activity for yourself if you look on school bulletin boards or in the school newspaper and talk to the activity advisor.

p. 52, ex. 4.

1. At the beginning of the school year, teachers often make announcements about after-school activities in the school.

2. You can find announcements on school bulletin boards or in the school newspaper.

3. Ask your friends what they like.

4. Some things to decide before joining any club include age, physical conditions, marks and time.

5. Each school is unique with its own list of after-school activities.

6. If you don’t find what you want in your school, you can try other clubs in the place where you live.

Conversation Lab: Discussing the Choice of After-school Activities

p. 53, ex. 5.

Too Much of a Good Thing?

Once you

(1) take up an activity, you have

(2) to enjoy it. You mustn’t

(3) feel stressed. It’8 important

(4) to keep a balance between to schoolwork, after-school activities, and your health. If you

(5) join a club and need

(6) think for any reason,

(7) consult with the teacher or coach. Be direct and polite and

(8) explain your situation and feelings. Sometimes it’s just not the right choice for you or it

(9) takes too much of your time. Perhaps you have

(10) to plan your schedule better.

(11) Improve your marks in some of the school subjects and

(12) rejoin later. You won’t help yourself or the group if you

(13) quit your homework during a training or

(14) feel tired during practice. Saying no can be the most responsible thing to do.

LESSONS 10-11. School in the News

p. 54, ex. 1.

I think that these students have become successful because they know how to plan their day and keep the balance between their schoolwork, after-school activities and their health.

p. 54, ex. 2.

The students in some American schools are paid for perfect attendance school and standardized test scores.

p. 54, ex. 3.

1. True.

2. False. More administrators are for cash rewards for the best students in class.

3. False. Not only students in high school can get a cash prize based on attendance records and standardized test scores.

4. True.

5. False. Only some educators think that such programs ought to be given a chance.

6. False. Critics say that such programs will lead to higher test scores among at-risk students,

p. 55, ex. 4.

1. Our school does not usually reward students for the achievements in studies.

2. Only smart students who work hard can become top students.

3. Yes, I think that if the students are paid for their school results it can make a difference to their attitudes towards studies.

4. Grammar Lab: Sentences with the Conjunctions If... and Unless

p. 55, ex. 5.

1. If he trains a lot, he can win the school running competition. He can win the school running competition if he trains a lot.

2. If I can't solve this problem, I can ask my teacher for help. I can ask my teacher for help if I can’t solve this problem.

3. If you look tired, why don’t you have a rest? Why don’t you have a rest if you look tired?

4. If our class wins the school basketball competition, we get a prize. We get a prize if our class wins the school basketball competition. 5. If they are good students, they keep the school rules. They keep school rules if they are good students.

6. If Ann is a monitor in our class, she gets higher test scores. Ann gets higher test scores if she Is a monitor in our class,

p. 56, ex. 6.

1. You can't hear all the teacher’s explanation unless you come on time for the lesson.

2. Unless you are ready for the lesson, you can't answer the teacher’s questions well.

3. You aren’t the best student in class unless you sometimes wear a school uniform.

4. Unless she passes her exams, her parents can’t be happy.

5. My father doesn’t drive me to school in his car unless I’m really late.

6. We usually go to the cinema on Sundays unless we are busy with our homework.

p. 56, ex. 7.

I don’t think that students need the promise of rewards to get good grades because they will go to school for rewards not for knowledge. I think that if the students want knowledge they do not need the promise of reward. The major reason for studying must be knowledge for future profession. But nowadays parents usually reward their children for high test scores but it should not be the major reason for studying. It is very good that our schools do not reward their students but parents usually give cash rewards and it usually changes the students approach schoolwork. In the USA some schools give cash to some students just for their attendance records and standardized test scores but I do not think it is right.

LESSON 13. Grammar Revision

p. 58, ex. 1.

1. What subjects does your friend study? When do his lessons start? What after-school activities does he take up?

2. What do you do to get the highest marks in your school tests? Why do you need to get the highest marks in your school tests?

3. Why is your school life very interesting? What does your school life involve?

p. 58, ex. 2.

Mark is 13 years old. He lives in Manchester and goes to a grammar

Mark has always enjoyed using computers. He started using them three years ago. He used it to write his English compositions. This year, Mark is doing very well in his school tests and, as a reward, his parents bought him a router. A router allows his computer to have the Internet access. Mark has been using his router for a few weeks now. He sends messages

to his friends all over the world. He even friends in Australia.

p. 58, ex. 3.

1. If I have time, I go to the cinema.

2. Unless Sue finishes her homework, she can’t play computer games.

3. Unless Bill learns the grammar rules, he will make a mistake.

4. Unless the school holidays start, we can’t have a rest.

5. Unless Steve improves his test results, he can’t join the swimming club.

6. Unless they buy a modem, they can’t surf the Internet.

p. 58, ex. 4.

Many children enjoy (Present Simple Active) school every day, but some of them only like (Present Simple Active) it on holidays when it’s closed (Present Simple Passive). We decided (Past Simple Active) to make (the infinitive) all our children happy at school. So we organized (Past Simple Active) a composition contest "The Funniest School Day in My Life". All the children enjoyed (Past Simple Active) it. They told (Past Simple Active) us many funny stories to amuse (the infinitive) us. We’ve made (Present Perfect Active) "The Golden Book of School Stories" and now you have (Present Simple Active) a good chance to read (the infinitive) it. One day Sharon brought (Past Simple Active) a wonderful essay to school. Her English teacher looked through (Past Simple Active) the essay attentively and said (Past Simple Active), "Sharon, this essay looks (Present Simple Active) as if your mother wrote (Past Simple Active) it".

Sharon was (Past Simple Active) a clever and fun-loving girl. She answered (Past Simple Active) immediately, "1 borrowed (Past Simple Active) my mum’s pen. Miss".

Harry is always cheating (Present Continuous Active) at the lessons. So his teachers try (Present Simple Active) to prevent (the infinitive) his cheating. One day Miss White said (Past Simple Active), «1 hope (Present Simple Active) I didn’t see (Past Simple Active) you cheating (the gerund), Harry». Harry smiled (Past Simple Active) and answered (Past Simple Active), «1 hope (Present Simple Active) you didn’t (Past Simple Active) either, Miss».

Conversation Lab

p. 59, ex. 5.

1. What type of school do you go to? Are there any rules in your school? What rules do you like and what rules you do not like?

2. What school subjects are you good at? What school subjects are you fond of?

p. 59, ex. 6.

The fanniest School Day in My Life

It happened a couple of years ago. I do not remember when exactly it was. It was one of the subjects I was not good at. The following day we were having a very serious test but I had no time to prepare carefully but I spent the whole night writing special small notes for the test. I hoped to have the chance to cheat. When I came in class I felt so tired because I did not sleep carefully. But the teacher said that we had no time to write something long and difficult so we wrote a simple test very fast. I had no chance to cheat but I remembered everything very well as I spent the whole night writing. The funniest thing is that I got excellent mark and was very happy and pleased. 

UNIT 3. BOOKS AND WRITERS

LESSONS 1-2. Stories, Stories, and Stories

p. 62, ex. 1.

a)

2. The book "The Lord of the Rings" was written by J. Tolkien.

3. The book "Oliver Twist" was written by Charles Dickens.

4. The book "Romeo and Juliet" was written by William Shakespeare.

5. The book "The Jungle Book" was written by Rudyard Kipling.

6. The book "Treasure Island" was written by Robert Louis Stevenson.

7. The book "Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone" was written by Joanne Rowing.

8. The book "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer" was written by Mark Twain.

b) I have read "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer", "Romeo and Juliet" and "Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone". I would like to read "Oliver Twist" and "Treasure Island". I know "The Hobbit" by J. Tolkien, "David Copperfield" by Charles Dickens, "Hamlet" by William Shakespeare, "Kim" by Rudyard Kipling, "Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde" by Robert Louis Stevenson, "Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows" by Joanne Rowing, "A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court" by Mark Twain.

p. 63, ex. 2.

Jane likes to read adventure stories and detective stories, classical novels and historical novels.

p. 64, ex. 3.

1. False. Jane writes a letter to share her impressions about her reading habit.

2. False. Jane sent Ann some books for Christmas and Ann liked them.

3. False. Jane has developed good reading habits already. She thinks it is a great thing because you never feel lonely. Books are necessary for her and she never travels very far without taking one with her.

4. True. Jane writes that everybody can easily find something for him to read on every possible occasion.

p. 64, ex. 4.

1. An adventure story is an exciting story about a hero who goes on an unusual journey and does new and dangerous things b).

2. A science fiction story is about events that take place in the future or in space and it usually describes strange creatures and robots c). 3. A drama is a serious and emotional play, written for the theatre, television or radio a).

4. A mystery is a story about a crime or a strange event that is difficult to explain a).

5. A humorous story is a funny story with a happy ending c).

6. A biography is the story of a person’s life written by another person b).

c) "Harry Potter" is a fantasy and adventure story. "Rob Roy" is a historical novel. "Gulliver’s travels" is a satirical and fantastic novel.

Conversation Lab

p. 65, ex. 7.

I like reading a lot. Usually I read adventure stories and detective stories. I like Arthur Conan Doyle and Mark Twain, Walter Scott and Louis Boussenard. I also like fantasy which is very popular nowadays. I know that our Ukrainian fantasy writers used to be the best in Europe in 2006 (Henry Lion Oldie) and 2013 (Andrey Valentinov). I am glad and proud of our writers. I also like historical novels. My favourite writers are Ukrainians because I am proud of my country.

p. 65, ex. 8.

I am fond of reading very much. I like reading because books usually tell us about the surrounding world, develop our artistic taste and broaden our outlook. Moreover books always give us useful and interesting information, provide us with the facts about life in the past or reflect real life. They almost all the time focus our attention on real life problems.

P. 66, ex. 1

1. The Celts used stone to carve runes write on. 3. Modern people use paper to on.

2. The Slavs used birch-tree bark to i print books on

3. All books are here to stay

p. 67, ex. 4.

1. We can find the personal opinion of the writer in the first paragraph.

2. We can find a thought provoking fact to get the reader interested in the subject in the second paragraph.

3. We can find the emphasis on the difference between owning a traditional book and an e-book in the third paragraph.

4. We can find an argument about which type of books will be used in future in the fourth paragraph. 

p. 68, ex. 5.

1. With time, these gadgets will be used more and more, and electronic books will be read by almost everybody. What will be used more and more with time? What will be read by almost everybody?

2. The moment you pay for it, the text will be shown on your screen. When will the text be shown on your screen? What will be shown on your screen the moment you pay for it?

3. I am sure I will be joined by other book lovers around the world. Who will I be joined by? Where will I be joined by other 

p. 68, ex. 6.

1. The film about Tom Sawyer will be shown on TV tonight.

2. The new library will be built in the city centre.

3. The writer will be met at the airport tomorrow.

4. An interesting fairy tale will be told in the evening.

5. This book will be given next week. 6. The last issue of the magazine will be published in three days. 

P. 69, ex. 7

First, trees will be cut in the forest and lumbers [колоди] will be brought by trucks to a paper mill. There lumbers will be cut in very small pieces like sawdust [тирса] and put into a very large bowl to boil in water and some chemicals. That soup is called pulp. After boiling the pulp will be dried and put under the press

to make a thin roll [рулон] of paper. Fion which books or magazines will be printed at another factory.

p. 69, ex. 8.

1. This book will be discussed at the lesson of World Literature. This book will not be discussed at the lesson of World Literature. Will this book be discussed at the lesson of World Literature?

2. The pupils of our class will be taken on an excursion next Friday. The pupils of our class will not be taken on an excursion next Friday. Will the pupils of our class be taken on an excursion next Friday?

3. The composition about Rob Roy will be written tomorrow. The composition about Rob Roy will not be written tomorrow. yWill the composition about Rob Roy be written tomorrow?

4. The catalogue of books will be made next week. The catalogue of books will not be made next week. Will the catalogue of books be made next week?

5. The dictionary will be used while reading the text in English. The dictionary will not be used while reading the text in English. Will the dictionary

be used while reading the text in English?

6. This information will be

included in the new edition of the encyclopedia. This information will not be included in the new edition of the encyclopedia. Will this information be included in the new edition of the encyclopedia?

7. The school library will be visited tomorrow. The school library will not be visited tomorrow.

Will the school library be visited tomorrow?

P. 70, ex. 1

1. The building in the picture looks like a big ancient palace or temple

3. They must be in a librarians,

4. This must be the Alexandria library, the biggest library in the ancient [стародавній] world. 

5. Because books containing the whole knowledge of that time were kept there. 5. They were destroyed in a great fire, though some scientists suspect that Romans under Julius Caesar stole [вкрали] the most valuable manuscripts and set fire [підпалили] to the library to cover [приховати] the theft.

70, ex. 2.

a) The most magnificent library in the ancient world was situated in Alexandria in Egypt. The great library of Alexandria existed for more than 900 years. The library in Alexandria contained over 700,000 scrolls which was the equivalent of 100,000 modern books.

b)

1. The Greeks gave everyone access to books because they loved learning.

2. Their libraries contained scrolls on all subjects ranging from mathematics to myths. 3. The most magnificent library was in Alexandria. 4. It contained over 700,000 scrolls which was the equivalent of 100,000 modern books.

p. 70, ex. 3.

The modern library offers to the readers different services such as surfing the Internet and listening to modern music, participating in different contests and meeting new friends. 

р. 71, ex. 4.

You can sign up for the Book Borrowing Department at the registration desk. You can work on the computer or surf the Internet in the Reading Room. You can listen to music in the Multimedia Hall. You can read a book in the Reading Room. You can ask a librarian for advice in the Book Borrowing Department. You can find encyclopedias and reference books in the Book Borrowing Department. You can burr books in the Book Borrowing Department. 

p. 72, ex. 5.

1. The librarian asks the children to return the books in time.

2. The librarian asks the children to keep the books clean and tidy.

3. The librarian asks the children to use book marks.

4. The librarian asks the children not to make drawings on the margins.

5. The librarian asks the children not to make dog ears.

6. The librarian asks the children not to tear the pages.

7. The librarian asks the children not to colour the pictures in books.

8. The librarian asks the children not to cut out the pictures.

9. The librarian asks the children not to lose books. 

p. 73, ex. 7

Libraries used to be gray and dull buildings in the past with rows and rows of high bookshelves to reach the top of which librarians had to climb by ladders. Modern libraries are bright buildings resembling conference halls or business offices with

comfortable furniture and modern computers. Apart from looking through books you can also surf the internet there, or watch a film or scientific serial, or listen to music. Also, libraries hold various exhibitions, conferences, competitions, so they can offer activities for any taste.  

p. 73, ex. 8

Our school building is not very modern, and neither is the library, but they have made a repair there and it’s a pleasure to visit it. It is quite traditional with rows of bookshelves, a wooden-box catalogue, and a small reading-room. Nevertheless, it has all the textbooks and prose and poems for our school reading, and much more. Here we can find interesting encyclopedias, map atlases, reference books on history, geography, biology, engineering, novels, detective stories and mysteries by both Ukrainian and foreign authors. There are also books in English there. A few computers have also found their way into the library. We can surf the internet there and look for materials for class projects. We can also borrow books from the library. To sum up, visiting our school library is a useful time-pass.

means of his art. He spent many years in exile for vicious criticizing the tsarist regime which oppressed Ukrainian people. He was also a talented artist. Western Ukraine which was part of Poland then. His works he showed the difficult life of common people exploited by Polish and Ukrainian land-owners. He wrote dozens of novels and short stories and hundreds of poems in which he foretold the freedom and independence of Ukrainian people. Lesia Ukrainka was a democratic poetess. She called for protest against merciless exploitation of her people by tsarist regime. Also she wrote beautiful lyrics based

p. 74, ex. 2

I was impressed by the fact that Taras Shevchenko orphaned when he was 11 but he could find his path in life. Russian painters bought Shevchenko’s freedom. Shevchenko established modern literary Ukrainian language. There are a lot of monuments to Taras Shevchenko not only in

Ukraine but also all over the world. 

p. 75, ex. 3.

1. Taras Shevchenko was born in he village ol Moryntsi on March 9, 1814.

2. Yes, he was orphaned in his early teens, when he was 11.

3. He grew in poverty and misery because he was orphaned when he was 11 and his father was a serf.

4. When Taras was 14 years old, he became a servant ("a houseboy") in the house of his owner, P. Engelhardt.

5. P. Engelhardt P noticed Shevchenko's artistic talent.

6. T. Shevchenko became free after K.Bryulov had painted the portrait of the Russian poet V. Zhukovsky and sold it for 2500 roubles.

7. He was admitted to Academy of Arts in St.Peterburgh.

8. In 1840 he published his first collection of poems “Kobzar”.

9. Shevchenko's role in the history of the Ukrainian literature is important because he was the founder of the new Ukrainian literatu he established Ukrainian as the national literary language. 

p. 75, ex. 4.

Group A.

1. Taras Shevchenko describes the Dnipro River as a mighty river which roars and bellows.

2. The weather is gloomy and angry.

3. The description of the Dnieper, ground and willows help use to see the picture of the Ukrainian nature.

4. The poem awakens patriotic feelings in readers.

Group B.

1. The poet really loved his Motherland and the following words show it: my beloved Ukraine, the boundless steppes, the Dnieper’s plunging shore.

2. He prayed for freedom for his countrymen.

3. The poet was dreaming of the free great country.

4. He believed that people could gain their freedom when they rose up and broke their heavy chains.

p. 77, ex. 5.

a)

1. False. ”Kobzar” is the name of his first small collection of poems.

2. True.

3. True. In his poems Shevchenko depicted the mother as the most wonderful sacred thing on the earth.

4. True. He also wrote of his love for homeland and the fight for its freedom and happiness, of the fight for spiritual freedom.

5. False. Taras Shevchenko brought completely new themes and images to the Ukrainian literature.

6. True.

b)

1. “Kobzar” is the name of Shevchenko’s first small collection of poems.

2. He wrote a ballad “The Bewitched”, a completely realistic work about things that were quite usual for those days.

3. It wa9 a tragic story of a serf girl who had been seduced.

4. In his poems he wrote of his love for homeland and the fight for its freedom and happiness, of hatred to any oppression, of the fight for spiritual freedom.

5. His poetry contributed greatly to the evolution of the national Ukrainian consciousness that’s why he is a national Doet. a poet of the DeoDle.

6. He wrote of the fight for spiritual freedom.

7. T. Shevchenko brought completely new themes and images to the Ukrainian literature. 

p. 75, ex. 8

1. Was talking.

2. Were you talking was telling.

3. Were you watching TV was reading.

4. Were you playing wasn't playing was

girl... 4 ...hatred to oppressors. 5. His wor] Ukrainian consciousness,... 6. Taras Shi to the Ukrainian literature.

1. The "Bewitched". 3 ... a serf- the cause of evolution of national enko also... 7 ... themes and images

B.

I was talking to the librarian.

2. Dan Who were you talking to when I phoned you?

Steve It was my brother. He was telling me about the book he read.

3. A. Were you watching TV when I calledfyou last night?

B.

No, I wasn’t. I was reading a magazine.

4. A. Were you playing tennis yesterday afternoon?

B.

No, I was not playing tennis, I was doing my homework. 

William Shakespeare is a world-famous poet and playwright. He also staged and acted in his plays in the "Globe" theatre. Among his dramas are "Romeo and Juliet", "Othello", "Hamlet", "King Lear", and many sonnets.

Robert Burns is a Scottish poet. He loved his motherland very much, and devoted beautiful poems to it. One of them is "My Heart’s in the Highlands".

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle used to be an army officer. He created a genius detective Sherlock Holmes who is known all over the world.

Rudyard Kipling lived a long time in India which was a British colony. He is known for his "The Jungle book". 

p. 78, ex. 2.

1. Robert Burns is honoured as a national poet of Scotland because he is the Scotland’s favourite son.

2. He was born in Ay re on January 25, 1759. He was the eldest of the seven children in a family. He had little A regular schooling. His life was difficult because by the age of fifteen he cr was the main helper to his father on a farm.

3. Robert Burns got hiseducation from his father. 4. The boy’s father taught his children reading, writing, arithmetic, geography and history and also wrote A Manual of Christian Belief for them. 5. He belonged to the Romantic Movement in literature. 6. Today his poems and songs Auld Lang Syne, A Red, Red Rose, A Man’s A Man for A That, My Heart’s in the Highlands are well- known. A №

p. 79, ex. 3.

(A) It is a marvelous mountain peak and a clear stream.

(B) These are snowy mountains and a fabulous lake with clear water.

(C) These are breathtaking’ waterfalls.

(D) It is a picturesque stream.

p. 80, ex. 4.

1. The poem helps me to imagine the author’s native land.

2. He uses the following words to describe it: the mountains high cover’d with snow, the straths and green valleys below, the forests and wild-hanging woods, the torrents and long-pouring floods.

3. He expresses his love to his native land with the following words: birthplace of valour, the country of worth.

p. 80, ex. 6.

1. The story was made into film last year.

2. The book will be returned to the library tomorrow.

3. The biography of this writer will be studied by many scientists in future.

4. Young William Shakespeare learnt to read Latin and Greek, and he studied the Roman classics.

5. To be or not to be; that is the question, is a well-known phrase by William Shakespeare, but many facts about his life remain a mystery.

6. Have you read any poems by Robert Burns?

p. 81, ex. 1.

a) A book review is a short report about a story.

b) People usually write reviews of their favourite books to make other people read it. They make advertisement of their favourite books. 

p. 81, ex. 2.

Dan gives his opinion of the book in the fourth paragraph.

Dan describes what happens in the book in the third paragraph.

Dan gives brief information about the book and its author in the first paragraph. 

p. 83, ex. 3.

1. True.

2. False. The story is set in England, in Hogwarts School.

3. False. The main character is a boy.

4. True. It is one of Dan’s favourite books.

5. False. It was not mentioned in the review.

p. 83, ex. 6.

A. Book review

I would like to share my impressions about the first part of the trilogy "The Lord of the Rings". It is a story of brave and friendly heroes. It was written by J. Tolkien. It is a very famous-fantasy book of one of the most influential fantasy writer in the world. The first part of the trilogy is called "The Fellowship of the Ring". It is about a trip of nine friends to the land called Mordor to destroy the Ring of Power which can cause a lot of trouble. The main heroes are brave and smart hobbits Frodo, Sam, Merry and Pippin; the Men Aragorn son of Arathorn, a Range of the North; and Boromir, a Captain of Gondor; Gimli son of Gion, a Dwarf warrior; Legolas Greenleaf, an Elven prince; and Gandalf, a Wizard. Their adventures are very dynamic and dangerous which makes the story very interesting and absorbing. I would thoroughly recommend this book to all my friends. I like the book because it teaches us friendship and responsibility.

p. 84, ex. 1

1. T. Many children are influenced by TV and the Internet which entertain them.

2. F. Most people who surf the Internet look for news, films, music or communicating in social networks. When it comes to reading novels though, people still tend to read paper books.

3. T. It’s hard to say definitely. Not all of them do so. There are still many teenagers

who are interested in literature, but most of them are either overloaded with school program, or simply don’t care.m^ J 

p. 84, ex. 3.

1. The article is about the habit ot reading

b).

2. The article says about the Harry Potter books that they make teenagers develop a habit of daily reading

b).

3. The Harry potter books influence the children’s school results that they became better

a).

4. Librarians and booksellers don’t sell e Harry Potter books and don’t buy more Harry Potter books to the 

p. 85, ex. 4.

Group A.

We are sure that reading books helps people to forget about their busy work in the office and relax at the end of the day. It is

quite true that reading for pleasure is more important than reading for information.

Group B.

We don’t think that reading fewer books means people can’t read as well. By the way, electronic literacy may be more critical to young people’s future success. However searching for information on the Web may be more challenging than reading a Harry Potter book.

p. 86, ex. 5

Dear Editor

I really enjoyed reading the article "Did Harry Potter Make Kids Better Readers?" in your newspaper of December 12 and tend to completely agree with it.

It is true that kids are reading less and that educators, librarians and newspapers cannot do much about it facing the competition from TV and the Internet. I would answer the author’s question, if the Harry Potters books are an exception, positively. The author is also right that regular reading can improve pupils' academic results, but not one book a year.

Nevertheless, the reason I am writing to you is to suggest that your newspaper continue this research and maybe you will be able to come up with a solution of this problem, or give some advice to parents and teachers on how to make this problem less acute. And thanks for the interesting article.

With best regards.

p. 87, ex. 1.

1. The Testement by Taras Shevchenko will be learnt for tomorrow.

2. The textbook review will be written in two days.

3. The Nobel Prize in Literature will be given to the best writer next year.

4. Our stories will be published in the next issue of our school newspaper.

5. The museum of Ivan Franko will be visited next.

6. The pictures for the new book

will be drawn in three months.

p. 87, ex. 2.

2. Peter isn’t as inattentive reader as his sister.

3. Reading paperbooks is not as comfortable as reading e-books.

4. Boys aren’t as good

p. 87, ex. 3.

Ernest Hemingway, an American writer, was born on July 21, 1899. His parents encouraged his many creative beginnings. His mother taught him music and took him to concerts, art galleries, and operas. His father taught him practical skills, like how to build fires, how to use an axe, and how to tie fishing flies.

By the age of three, he had known stories about many great men in American history, and he had collected cartoons of the Russian-Japanese war. He belonged to a nature study group. Ernest liked writing and could O' spell well. His parents taught him to value physical courage.

Ernest showed an interest in Writing when he was 12. He wrote stories about heroes having high action adventures. In high school he wrote for the school’s weekly newspaper. He also took up canoeing. His motto was "be afraid of nothing".

Ernest was an unusual child. No one was too surprised when he grew up to be an exceptional writer. 

p. 88, ex. 4

B: You’re not, a hurry to go home today. 

A: No, I decided to choose a book to read, but I seem at a loss, there are so many books.

B: Why don’t you choose a book on geography? There is the whole section. You can find books on any continent.

A: I have enough of geography at geography lessons. I’d like something else. 0

B: Then you can choose something from the history sections. There are books on magnificent kingdoms, glorious battles, and revolutions.

A: I can read it all in our history text-book. 

B: You are difficult to please. What do you like then?

A: I am fond of science fiction. Many of the inventions described in science fiction novels like flying to the Moon or submarines have become reality nowadays.

B: Then Isaac Asimov or Ray Bradbury should be your choice. Both of them have written excellent science fiction stories and novels.

A: Yes, and I have read some of them. Let’s see what our library has to offer...

p. 88, ex. 5

John Galsworthy is the author of the famous "Forsights’ Saga". It is interesting that he began writing books quite late. He was born on August 14, 1867 in a bourgeois family. He was supposed to follow in his father’s steps and become a lawyer. As a sensible young man, John studied law at Oxford, following which he started his own practice. But in less than a year he realized that he didn't like his profession. So he left everything and went to travel all over the world. In 1891 John Galsworthy turned up in Russia. This country and its literature made a great impression on him. By the age of 27 he decided that he would not return to legal practice, but would go in for literature instead. His first attempts were not successful, but the writer didn’t give up hope, and tried again. He wrote stories, plays, novels in which he tried to show life realistically. The first part of his successful work, the Forsights’ Saga, was published in 1906. This story of the Forsights’ family was portrayed in six novels and encompasses three generations. At the same time, it depicts not only one family’s history, but also that of 50 years of the British bourgeois society.

Unit 4. Listenind to Music

p. 90, ex. 1.

The author says that music is everywhere because he finds music tte in every sound our ears hear.

p. 90, ex. 2.

(A) The people are on the concert of rock-music. They are of different age. They enjoy listening to music and have fun.

(B) The people are on the concert of classical music. I think that they are people of over 40. They enjoy listening to classical composers and their works.

(C) This is a concert of pop-music. Usually teenagers and young people like this kind of music.

(D) This is Ruslana’s concert. Usually young people visit her concerts because the songs are energetic and active. E These people are Potap and Nastia. They are R&B singers popular among the people of middle age. FThis is a jazz singer and player. He is playing the saxophone. Usually people of middle age like jazz music.

p. 91, ex. 3.

Music is a universal (1) language. It offers up refreshment from our daily (2) life. It washes away the dust of everyday (3) routine from our souls. Music has accompanied people through the ages with wonderful (4) melodies, harmony and (5) songs. Ancient people listened to the sounds of nature and believed in their strong power over them. Music, in many ways, has become one of the central ways in which people of different nations pass on their traditions. Native music in any (6) culture is creative and very much alive. Contemporary

music is not static either. Today’s (7) artists and (8) composers use their national tradition in music as their starting point and the main source of inspiration. Music is the art that speaks most openly to us: a child’s (9) tune brings a smile, (10) lyric sounds towards the soul and mind, and a waltz makes us dance. Music talks to our heart and soul. It carries our culture to the next generation. Music opens the way into the future.

p. 91, ex. 4.

1. Music is called "a universal language" because it offers up o refreshment from our daily life and it washes away the dust of everyday routine from our souls.

2. Music communicates to different people with the help of wonderful melodies, harmony and songs.

3. Our emotions depend on the sounds we hear.

4. The ancient people listened to the sounds of nature and believed in their strong power oyer them.

5. The music has changed through centuries because it is not static.

6. National tradition in music. I helps modern composers make their expressions more personal.

p. 91, ex. 5.

1. to offer up g) refreshment from our daily life;

2. to arise e) various emotions;

3. to use smth. as f) starting point;

4. to wash away b) the dust of everyday life;

5. to be enchanted by h) the mystery of music p patterns;

6. to tap out c) the first beats;

7. to be the main source of d) inspiration;

8. to accompany smb. a) through the ages.

p. 92, ex. 3.

Tina Karol was born on January 25, 1985 in Orotucan, Russia. Oleksandr Ponomariov was born on August 9, 1973 in Khmelnitskiy, USSR. Ukraine Award: Honoured Artist of Ukraine, Merited Artict of Ukraine.

He won the first price at Ukrainian contest of young singers "Chervona Ruta" in 1993, he got grand prix at Vladimir Ivasiuk International contest of young performers of modern Ukrainian song in 1995.

Style:

I don’t even realize that music is playing. On the other hand, when there’s no music and I can hear only deep silence I feel a little uneasy. Sometimes when there’s no source of music I hum or whistle a tune to myself.

Usually music arises positive emotions in me, especially if it’s a merry, rhythmical music, though slow or sad music can make me pensive. I like many kinds of music. What music to listen to depends on my mood, and when I listen to my favourite melodies and songs my mood always improves.

p. 92, ex. 7.

1. You will definitely be enchanted by contemporary music.

2. People will be accompanied by music through the ages.

3. Positive emotions will be arisen by this piece of music.

4. Hisher own music patterns will be followed by every musician.

5. Nature as a source of inspiration will always be considered by musicians.

6. Our problems will away by good music.

7. The rhythm on his drum will be tapped

but by him.  

p. 93, ex. 4.

a) I listen to rap.

1. "Rhythm and blues" started in the USA.

2. Elvis Presley was one of the first "rock and roll" singers.

3. The Beatles mixed rhythm and blues, and roll and soul music to create the British Beat Music.

4. Bob Marley made "reggae" popular.

5. Jazz is an American musical art form.

p. 94, ex. 5.

Picture (B) is associated with the Blues. Picture (C) is associated with Rock and Roll. Picture (D) is associated with Heavy Metal. Picture (E) is associated with Country and Western. Picture (F) is associated with Rap. Picture (G) is associated with Reggae. Picture (H) is associated with Gospel.

p. 95, ex. 9.

1. I will be asked at the music lesson tomorrow.

2. We were told a lot about the life of famous Ukrainian composer M. Lysenko by our teacher of music at the previous lesson.

3. Our musical dictations are usually checked by our teacher.

4. The name of this composer is seldom mentioned in our country.

5. The girl is not allowed to go to the concert. 6. The way to the nearest concert hall was shown to me by the Londoner.

p. 96, ex. 1.

1. Jazz started among slaves from West Africa a).

2. A popular type of music in which the words are spoken not sung, is called rap b)

3. The music of Bach, Beethoven, and Mozart is called classical music c).

4. Traditional music played by the ordinary people is called folk music a).

p. 97, ex. 3.

b)

1. Stringed Instruments a kobza, a guitar, a double bass, a cello, a violin, a bandura.

2. Wind Instruments a flute, a French horn, a saxophone, bagpipes.

3. Percussion Instruments a xylophone, a drum,

4. Keyboard Instruments an accordion. Stringed and Keyboard Instrument a piano. Stringed and Wind Instrument an organ. 

p. 99, ex. 5.

This one must be created by a real professional. (The person is 95% sure about what he is saying. This modal verb expresses deduction).

You can play different styles of music on it. (The person expresses possibility). 

My mum is sure I will participate in an international contest one day. (The person is 100% sure what he is talking about. This modal verb expresses certainty). 

I believe I should go to a music school and have more lessons. (This modal is going to participate in the school concert? Am I going to participate in the school concert or city demonstration? My friend loves music. He plays the guitar. His brother plays it well-and taught him. This is a string instrument. You play it by hitting the strings. My friend has been practicing for only a few years, but plays it very well. He’s really good playing. His mum thinks that he should go to a music school. 

p. 99, ex. 8.

1. Who wants to become a pop star? He wants to become a pop star, doesn’t he?

2. What does music help people to do? Does music help people to express themselves?

3. What have I always dreamt of? Have I or they always dreamt of playing the piano?

4. What do we enjoy? We enjoy our traditional folk music, don’t we?

5. What has my favourite group

recorded yet? Has my favourite group recorded a new album yet?

6. Who 

p. 101, ex. 2.

1. The poem is about electric guitar.

2. The speaker likes both p to play this musical instrument and listen to it.

3. We can hear the sounds of the electric guitar everywhere, on CDs or tapes, at home or in cars, in the street, or gigs or bars.

4. Rock and reggae, pop, heavy metal and jazz, are usually performed on it.

5. The speaker says different styles of music do not bother him.

6. I think that the speaker likes this musical instrument ecause of its sound.

7. Yes, I have my favourite musical instrument.

8. Its ound makes it so special for me.

p. 101, ex. 3.

a)

A. Hi! How are you today?

A. What style of music do you like?

B. Rap and R&B. They are quite in fashion at the moment.

A. Do you play any musical instrument?

B. Sure, I can play the piano.

A. That’s interesting. I like playing the guitar. I learn to play this music instrument at school.

B. In Ukraine we aren’t taught to play any musical instrument at school. We usually go to a music school or have private lessons.

A. There are also music schools in Britain. Children who study there are going to become professional musicians. Have you ever heard about music

B. No, I haven’t. Where can I read about them?

A. Go to Google, type "International Internet Music Academy" and surf the website. I think you’ll find something interesting there.

B. Thank you for your advice.

p. 102, ex. 4.

1. The pupils must play the musical instruments regularly.

2. The pupils should follow the notes.

3. The pupils must listen to the conductor’s commands.

4. The pupils should sit straight and comfortably.

5. The pupils should keep their musical instruments in order.

6. The pupils should enjoy playing their musical instrument.

7. The pupils can become

p. 102, ex. 5

1. They must play the musical instrument regularly.

2. They should follow the notes.

3. They must listen to the conductor's commands. 

4. They should sit straight and comfort-ably.

5. They must keep your musical in order.

6. They should enjoy playing your musical instrument.

7. They must become successful. 

8. They must shout at the lesson.

p. 102, ex. 6.

Nelly has been singing in the school choir since she was eight. Last month the choir gave a concert and two weeks ago the school took part in a competition with other schools. Nelly has wanted to be a pop star for a long time. When Nelly was very young she saw Kylie Minogue on TV, and since then Nelly has been dreaming of becoming famous. Nelly also play9 the violin. She has been having lessons for three years, and she really enjoys them.

p. 102, ex. 7

1. has sung:

2. gave; 

3. took;

4. wanted;  

p. 103, ex. 1.

a) The children are going to the concert of Natalia Mohylevska.

b) Cashier Can I help you? 

c) You Can I buy tickets to the concert of Natalia Mohylevska for Saturday night?

Cashier Sorry, they are sold out. What about Sunday night? 

You That’s OK. Are there enough seats for Sunday night? 

Cashier Yes, there are seats for that one. How many tickets would you like?

- You Two adults and two children.

Cashier OK, that’s two hundred hryvnias, please (two adults and two children).

You Here they are. 

Cashier That’s 200 UAH out of 500 UAH. 300 UAH is your change.

You Thank you.

Cashier You are welcome. The concert starts at 7 o’clock.

You We’ll be on time.

p. 104, ex. 2.

The music was fantastic, the singing was quite good, the guitar solos were brilliant, the drums were really loud. The lighting and the special effects were breathtaking. The stage design was spectacular. The sound was - clear. The songs were marvelous, the words were charming. The costumes were original and fashionable.

p. 104, ex. 3.

1. The Place and the Singer.

2. The Singer and the Audience.

3. The Performance.

4. Feelings after the Performance.

p. 104, ex 4.

writing lab

Hello! like to tell you about my last visit to the concert. It was awesome!

It was a late Saturday evening. I was sit¬ting at home reading a boring book. Suddenly my friend phoned me and told that she got 2 tickets to the concert.

I don’t like listening to music in pub, lie places, but this concert I won’t forget ever! It was Ocean Elzy’s concert. We didn't just listen to music, really loud music, but we also screamed. Oh god! The band was amazing! The scenery was nice too. There was a lead singer Sviatoslav Vocarchuk, who was singing and the person who was playing on the drums, I liked his play! We danced! So, If my friend hadn't phone me that evening, I wouldn’t have had such amazing night!

p. 105, ex. 4.

1. The reviewer liked the concert because he wrote that the evening was highly enjoyable and there was a tremendous amount of fun there.

2. He watched the concert in a small concert hall.

3. The audience was about 100 people.

4. The audience clapped in the rhythm.

5. The singer talked a lot, but not only between songs, also during songs.

6. Yes, it of.

p. 105, ex. 5.

songs solo; the audience really close, clap in the rhythm; the music get flooded with music, festivals, real experience, real; the performance enjoyable, tremendous. 

p. 106, ex. 6 

I like modern rhythmical music to dance to. I would prefer to go to a hard rock concert, but for a change I would visit one of Randy Newman concerts. It would be relaxing to sit in a small concert hall close to the singer and enjoy a solo performance to the accompaniment of only a piano. I would invite my best friend to it to be able to discuss the performance after the concert.

p.106, ex. 7

Among my favourite Ukrainian singers and groups are Natalia Mogylevska, and “Ocean Elzy”. Their songs are melodical and memorable, and lyrics is meaningful. These singers are patriotic and perform in Ukrainian. 

p. 106, ex. 8.

Last Sunday, hundreds of fans went to Ukraine Palace in Kyiv to see the famous Ukrainian band "Okean Elzy". There was not an empty seat anywhere in the auditorium. "Sure, it’s cold outside, but I hope we’ll warm it up here for you" said Sviatoslav Vakarchuk, the band leader.

The band sang a lot of well-known songs from their albums.The wonderful music and the songs words told the listeners about the eternal values: CF understanding, friendship and love.

The sound was perfect. The audience really loved the concert. Many people in the crowd were real fans and they knew the words and they sang along to nearly every song.

At the end of the concert, "Ocean Elzy" showed that they were true performers. They finished with a new song — a song from their album "Mira". I know that I saw the performance of real stars.

p. 106, ex. 9.

A. Concert Review

I like listening to music very much. I can’t live without it so I enjoy going to the concerts very much. My favoirite Ukrainian hand is Okean Elzy. Last year I had a chance to see Okean Elzy alive. I went to their concert and was very excited. I came there an hour before the concert to get a good position and see everything better Unfortunately the concert started an hour later so I had to wait for two hours but I did not regret going there. Everything was great, the sound, selection of songs and scenic design. The audience started singing together with the band almost from the first song, Almost all the time they focus our attention on real life problems. It was really amazing to see all this. The concert lasted for a couple of hours but I did not feel tired. I was really, excited and filled with emotions. The concert was amazing. 

p. 107, ex. 1.

Dan is looking for a new CD by "Okean Elzy" in a record shop.

p. 107, ex. 2.

We do not know who has recorded a CD by "Ocean Elzy". We do not know who has nominated the group as "the Best Live Group-2007". We know that radio and TV have broadcasted many of their songs.

p. 108, ex. 3.

1. A new concert hall has been built in the capital city recently.

2. The old violin has been found in New York.

3. An unknown young singer has been awarded the first prize at the song contest.

4. A new album by Tina Karol has been recorded this month.

5. The concert has been attended n by thousands of fans.

6. The famous singer has warmly been received by the audience.

7. This violin has been used by many famous musicians.

р. 108, ex. 4.

а)

1. Helen В

2. Julia С

3. Ryan А

a)

1. False. Mozart was born in Austria.

2. True.

3. True.

4. True.  

Ludwig van Beethoven studied not only under Mozart but also under Franz Joseph Haydn and Antonio Salieri.

p. 109, ex. 2.

Group A.

1. Beethoven lived in the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century.

2. He got his education in Vienna.

3. know the Moonlight Sonata and Ninth Symphony.

4. Mozart and Haydn were his teachers. 5. When Beethoven was 32 he went deaf.

Group B.

1. Mozart began composing at the age of five, from the age of six he toured Europe and gave concerts in Austria, Germany, France, Italy and Switzerland.

2. Mozart lived only 35 years, but he became one of the world’s most famous composers.

3. Mozart could play different instruments.

4. Mozart composed «The Marriage of Figaro» and "The Magic Flute".

5. I think that the legends around Mozart’s life are just legends.

p. 109, ex. 5.

1. How many CDs in this collection have been bought as souvenirs? Why have many of the CDs in this collection been bought?

2. What has been discovered recently? What facts have been discovered recently?

3. What good report has been prepared by one of my classmates? Who has been a good report about modern music been prepared by? 4. What festival has been organized in Lviv? Where has the music festival been organized?

p. 111, ex. 3.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is a famous composer. He was born m Austria in 1756. He started playing different musical instruments at the age of four. 

He began composing at the age of five. From the age of six he toured Europe and gave concerts in Austria, Germany, France, Italy and Switzerland. He wrote symphonies and several great operas. His most important works include "The Marriage of Figaro" and "The Magic Flute".

Musical tradition at the age of five when began to learn to play the violin. Such remarkable violinists as Bohodar Kotorovych, Leonid Kohan and Valeriy Klymov were among his teachers. 

Kyrylo Stetsenko has won Ukrainian and International prizes; he has toured the USA, Canada, Poland, Hungary, Austria, Belgium and Portugal with concerts, he writes classical music, pop music and music for television. 

P. 111, ex. 5

Antonio Vivaldi is the greatest representative of Italian violin art who created new dramatized, so called Lombardian mode of playing. He was born on the 4th of March, 1678 in Venice. He was taught to play the violin by his father and later on to compose by J. Legrentsi. Since 1714 he directed the Venetian orchestra and conservatoire choir. He created the genre of a solo instrumental concert, influenced the development of violin virtuoso technique. He was an expert in ensemble orchestra concert — concerto grosso. Vivaldi created nearly 40 operas. He also composed cantatas, symphonies, more than 460 concert, including the cycle of 4 violin concerti "The 4 seasons", the early example of symphonic music. He died in 1741 in Vienne.

p. 113, ex. 1.

1. a) Mrs Johnson loves all her pupils.

2. b) The singer will be given flowers.

3. a) The composer has already written a new song.

p. 113, ex. 2.

1. Two tickets to the concert were bought by me yesterday.

2. A new disc will be brought by my friend tomorrow.

3. Musical instruments are sold in this shop.

4. This famous violin has been stolen recently.

5. This opera will be staged by us at the beginning of the next season.

6. Musical festivals are often participated by my mother. 

p. 113, ex. 3.

1. Music is played everywhere.

2. I studied to play the piano for three years at the musical school.

3. Our teacher is loved by people.

4. Thisp opera has been composed lately.

5. A new musical school will be opened in our city next month.

6. The students greeted the famous singer warmly.

p. 114, ex. 4.

1. This film has already been seen by our class.

2. Have you ever been to the Opera House?

3. He has never played the flute.

4. We have already listened to the new hit of Ruslana.

5. Has your mood been improved by this music?

6. I have been taken to the concert by my friend.

p. 114, ex. 5.

1. This concert has not been played before. What has been played before?

2. I was not offered a ticket to the concert of Volodymyr Hryshko. What ticket was I offered?

3. The audience did not admire the charming music at the concert last Sunday. When did the audience admire the charming music at the concert?

4. The biography of the outstanding composer Petro Chaikovsky will not be told to us in English. Whose biography will be told to us in English?

5. We are not always inspired by music. Who is always inspired by music?

P. 114, ex. 6-7

I ve invited my best friends for my birthday party. Our tastes m music are more or less the same. I have a modest collection of music at home. I get new songs mostly from the Internet. I have several discs with Ukrainian performers. Among them are “Ocean Elzy”, Natalia Mogylevska. a Jamala disc has recently joined them. I have also about a dozen discs with foreign music, mostly hard rock and heavy metal, a few with hip-hop — for the most part they are presents from my relatives and friends. Whenever I have a party I run a sort of a poll among my friends to find out their latest preferences and surf the Internet to load the music they like.

Unit 5. Countries, people, lifestyle: the UK and Ukraine

p. 116, ex. 1.

Greg and Dan are penfriends. They communicate with each other by e-mails. They tell each other about their hobbies and interests.

1. Hello, Greg! My name is Dan and I’m interested in learning English.

I am a student from Ukraine. I’m fond of travelling. Tell me more about your interests.

2. Hi, Dan! I’m from Scotland. I’m in the Internet café on 5th Street now. I’m preparing a report about the climate in Europe. What’s the weather like in Ukraine at the moment?

3. Hello again, Greg! Nice to meet you. The day is very nice and the sun is shining. It’s the typical weather for Ukraine in April. I have always dreamt of visiting Scotland.

It is the country of Robert Burns and Walter Scott. We’ve learnt about Scotland at the English lessons this year, y Hi, Dan! Thank you for your e-mail. I’m glad that you know about famous writers. Are you interested in Literature? My hobby is Music. I’m learning to play the bagpipes. I took part in a music festival last month.

P. 117, ex. 1

A: I think Dan is an open-minded person because he likes meeting new people and travelling and wants to know more about other countries.

B: In my opinion Dan is good at English, because he doesn’t hesitate to write an e-mail letter to an English-speaking person.

p. 117, ex. 3.

My name’s Greg and I’m from Scotland. I’m 14 years old and I’m in year 9 at school.

I’ve got lots of hobbies and interests. I’m keen on music and enjoy playing the bagpipes. I practise quite a lot of time every day. I’m very interested in learning more about the countries in Europe.

I’m not at all a shy person. I’m quite confident and really ambitious. I’ve probably got a few faults. I think I’m slightly impatient and maybe a quick-tempered. 

p. 117, ex. 4.

1. I’m slightly sensitive.

2. My friend is really hard-working.

3. I find Chinese quite difficult.

4. He is not at all a rude person.

5. Shejp is a little shy.

6. He is very attentive to his friends.

p. 118, ex. 5.

1. Where do you come from?

2. How big is your family?

3. What school do you study at? 

4. What are your favourite school subjectsl 

5. What free time activities are you interested in?

6. What countries did you visit

p. 118, ex. 6.

1. Where do you come from?

2. How big is your family?

3. What school do you study at?

4. What are your favourite school subjects?

5. What free time activities are you interested in?

6. What countries have you visited? 

p. 118, ex. 7

Написати цього листа можна, даючи відповіді на запитання попередньої вправи. Можна також взяти за основу лист Грега (впр. З, с. 117 підручника).

P.119, ex. 1

In picture (A) we can see a small group of teenagers on a hiking tour. They are walking along a valley [долина], and in the background we can see a mountain. It looks like Ukrainian Goverla. It has no snow-cap, it isn’t very high, nor is very steep [крута], but all the same, it is beautiful and quite impressive. The teenagers have walking sticks in their hands and big heavy rucksacks on their backs. Perhaps they are going to have a rest, and then climb that mountain.

In picture (В) young people seem to be having a good time at a school cafeteria. They are having sandwiches and lemon tea and discussing the latest school-project. In picture (C) we can see hundreds of young people visiting a cinema. They are going to watch a film based on a school program book. Some students have read the book and are going to compare the film and the book characters. Others have decided to watch the film instead of reading the book. У

Picture (D) shows a rock concert. Teenage girls are frenzied, stretching out their hands trying to reach their idol.

Picture (E) brings us to a rugby game. One of the players has managed to catch 

the oval ball and is running to the rivals’ goal with other team-mates following to protect the treasure. The players are happy. The victory is near!

I In picture (F) we can see an IT classroom. Some students are surfing the internet for a school project, others are writing e-mail letters to their new friends from other countries, including Ukraine, still others create new computer programs to facilitate school accountancy. In the right-hand corner a young teacher is giving some.

In picture (G) we can see teenagers doing some outdoor activity.

finally in picture (H) we can see young girls at a cyber-café sharing news fjjjwitn their friends or playing computer games.

p. 119, ex 2.

1. (B) Two Common Leisure Activities in the UK.

2. (D) Entertaining Pt and Cinema.

3. (A) Eating out.

4. (E) Doing Sports.

p. 121, ex. 3.

Teenagers in UK enjoy computer games and watching television .

p. 121, ex. 4.

1. Maksym is very keen on sport.

2. Dan spends a lot of money on computer games.

3. Dan spends two or three hours a day chatting online.

4. Ann enjoys going to the theatre and to the cinema more than doing sports.

5. Ann thinks that a good hobby can become a future profession.

6. Maksym spends school holidays visiting different places in Ukraine and tr abroad.

p. 122, ex. 7.

1 enjoy doing sport. I really like playing computer games. I don t like going to theatre. I quite like going out with friends. I prefer chatting sponline to drawing. 

р. 123, ex. 1.

1. А.

2. D.

p. 123, ex. 8. 

Sometimes I play different sport games for health and pleasure. I usually play such games as volleyball, basketball, tennis, and sometimes football.

p. 124, ex. 2.

Climate is the weather in a certain area or place over many years.

Р. 124, ех. 3.

Яка сьогодні погода? Ясно й сонячно чи холодно й сиро? Йде сніг чи пекельно спекотно? Більшість із нас цікавиться погодою, бо вона впливає на наше повсякденне життя. Тепла й сонячна погода ідеальна для ігор надворі, а сира погода часто тримає нас вдома.

Клімат — це погода в певній місцевості протягом багатьох років. Погода описує щоденний стан атмосфери. До неї належать температура повітря, освітленість,

опади, швидкість і напрям вітру.

Погоду вивчають науковці, що звуться метеорологами. Погода змінюється часто, тому прогнози треба уточнювати.

Клімат у Сполученому Королівстві (Британії) визначається як помірний. Це означає, що він не дуже жаркий чи холодний і не дуже вологий чи сухий. У цілому він доволі вологий і м’який. Проте є відмінності в різних частинах королівства. Західне узбережжя країни в цілому тепліше, ніж внутрішні'райони. Найхолодніша погода у січні в Шотландії. Особливо холодно в горах. Це тому, що температура повітря опускається тим нижче, чим вище вгору ви піднімаєтесь. Погода в Сполученому Королівстві значно міняється щодня і навіть протягом доби. Сьогодні можна носити шорти й футболки, а завтра — светри й пальто! У Сполученому Королівстві вітер найчастіше дме з південного заходу. Рухаючись над Атлантичним океаном, вітер забирає вологу. Ось чому в Британії

часто хмарно й дощить.

p. 125, ex. 3.

1. The climate is the weather in a certain area or place over many years.

2. The weather describes the day-to-day conditions of the atmosphere. 

3. The weather includes the temperature of the air, the amount of sunshine and rainfall, and the wind and direction.

4. The climate of the UK is temperate which means that it is not very hot or very cold, or very wet or too dry.

5. The climate of the UK has variations within the different parts of the country.

6. Britain has plenty of clouds and rain because the wind more often comes from the south-west and moves across the Atlantic Ocean and picks up moisture.

p. 125, ex. 5.

1. Did the weather forecast affect your choice of clothes yesterday? 

2. The climate of the UK is described as temperate.

3. What is the temperature today? — It is 20 degrees above zero.

4. Does this territory get enough sunshine and rainfall? 5. The weather has changed greatly recently.

6. It is boiling hot.

7. The wind speed and direction will change tomorrow.

8. The weather conditions have already been studied by the meteorologists.

9. Do you usually listen to the weather forecast?

10. Are there any places in the UK which are warmer than inland? 

p. 126, ex. 1.

(A) It is summer. The weather is sunny and hot. It is not raining. I usually wear a T-shirt and shorts on such a day.

(B) It is autumn. It is cloudy and gloomy. It is about to rain. I usually wear a sweater and trousers on such a day.

(C) It is spring. The weather is sunny and warm. It is not raining. I usually wear a jacket and jeans on such a day.

(D) It is trousers. 

P.126, ex. 2.

Fine weather: sunny, hot, calm, bright, clear, warm, cool.

Nasty weather: cloudy, rainy, misty, snowy, foggy, wet, cold, dull, stormy, windy.

p. 126, ex. 2.

Fine weather snowy, sunny, hot, calm, bright, clear, warm, cool. Nasty weather cloudy, rainy, misty, foggy, wet, cold, dull, stormy, windy.

p. 127, ex. 4.

A.

— Nice day, isn’t it? 

— Yes, it is. But it is hot enough for me. I’m boiling.

B.

— Looks like rain to me.

— This rain hasn’t let up for two weeks. 

Yes, it’s a perfect day for staying outside.

D.

— A little on the cool side, isn’t it?

— Are you joking? I’m going crazy! Gee.

p. 127, ex. 5.

2. Steve says, "It may not rain hard in September here".

3. Pamela says, "It may not snow much in December".

4. Ramona says, "You should not put a warm sweater on, Jack!"

5. Dennis says, "You have soaked wet. You should give me your jacket and hat to dry".

6. Sue says, "It may be too windy for a picnic".

7. Mr Stevenson says, "The weather may not change today any more".

8. Mrs Brown says, "You should put the right clothes into your suitcase!" 

p. 127, ex. 6.

Every season is good in some ways, but I love early autumn best of all. In September the days are still warm, but not scorching hot. They are still quite long and the leaves on the trees just begin to turn gold and red. The harvest is in, and people who have kitchen-gardens have more free time. It’s a good season for quiet walks or noisy games. It’s sad that we have to go to school, but on the other hand I have only a couple of friends living nearby, so it’s impossible to gather two complete football teams, but it is easy to do so at school. There are also facilities ) for other kinds of sport, and afterschool activities. A 

p. 128, ex. 1.

b) S stands for the south. SW stands for the south-west. NW stands for the north-west. NE stands for the north-east. N stands for the stands for the east. W stands for the west. 

p. 128, ex. 2.

1. (B) The British Isles.

2. (C) Great Britain.

3. (A) The United p Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

p. 129, ex. 3.

1. True. The official name of the country is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

2. True. The UK consists of several parts: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

3. True. The UK is an island country. The biggest islands are Great Britain and Ireland.

4. False. Ann does not know a lot about the UK. Olia knows a lot about S the UK. 

p. 129, ex. 4.

1.

(A) What’s the weather like in the west of the UK?

(B) It’s cloudy and not hot. aP

2.

(A) What’s the weather forecast for the northern part of the UK? (B) Oh, it’s going to be cloudy but with no rain and not very warm.

3.

(A) How’s the weather in Edinburgh (Scotland)?

(B) I’ve heard it’s cloudy and not very hot.

4.

(A) What’s the temperature?

(B) It’s 18-19 degrees above zero. 

p. 130, ex. 5.

1. The following statement best describes the weather across the UK: d) cloudy with heavy rain.

2. Western part of the UK (Ireland) has no sunshine forecast.

3. The forecast for northern Scotland is 18-19 degrees above zero.

4. The highest temperature forecast is in the centre.

5. The temperature in England is 18-19 degrees above zero.

6. There is no rain forecast in Cardiff in Wales.

7. In Scotland the wind is blowing from the east.

8. It is colder and it is heavy rain in central and eastern Scotland and it is warmer in Northern Ireland.

P. 130, ex. 6.

After you cross the border of Scotland the weather will change. The rain will stop and there will be periods of sunshine with occasional showers, though. Also, it will be much warmer: the temperature will gradually raise from 11°C in Edinburg to 19°C in London! So you will be able to walk in a light suit. The wind will change its direction from the north-east to the south-west and will not be so strong as in Scotland. Enjoy your trip!

p. 130, ex. 7.

a)

1. I have visited Scotland, but I have never been to Northern Ireland.

2. How many parts does the UK consist of?

3. I was reading a book about the places of interest in Great Britain when he came.

4. You will have the meeting with our friends from Scotland in a month.

5. The for the coming week.

p. 130, ex. 8 

For the attention of those leaving for London next week. The weather in London during the week to come is expected to be foggy in the morning and cloudy during the day with occasional patches of sunshine and short periods of slight rains in the afternoon. It will be clear at night The temperatures will vary from +2...5 at night to +12... 14 in the afternoon with gradual raise by the week-end to +3...5 at night to +15...15 in the afternoon. There will be slight wind changing from western on Monday and Tuesday for south-western by the week-end. 

p. 131, ex. 2.

1. (C) It consists of four countries which are England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

2. (A) They are known as "the backbone of England".

3. (F) There are many lakes around the UK.

4. (G) It extends north-east to south-west and forms a natural barrier between the Highlands wlands.

5. (B) It marks part of the border between Scotland and igland.

6. (D) There are many lonely hills, quiet rivers, deep lakes and just farmlands, especially in the south of the country.

p. 132, ex. 3.

1. The UK is situated off the north-west coast of Europe.

2. The UK is called an island state because it is situated on two big islands, Great Britain and Ireland.

3. I know that the most important rivers are the Thames, the Severn and the Clyde and the mountains in Great Britain are not very high. 4. The Union Jack is made up of three crosses: the cross of St. George (the patron saint of England), the cross of St. Andrew (the patron saint of Scotland) and the cross of St. Patrick (the patron saint of Ireland). 

p. 133, ex. 4.

a) 

The two islands are separated by the Irish Sea. The UK is separated from the continent by the English Channel and the Strait of Dover. The UK is also washed by the Atlantic Ocean in the north and the North Sea in the r east. The most important rivers are the Thames, the Severn and the Clyde. 

mountains

The Grampian Mountains are a mountain range of central Scotland. Ben Nevis is the highest peak. The Pennines are a low-rising mountain range in northern England and Scotland. There are the Cambrian Mountains in Wales. People more than 57 million people live in Britain. But foreigners are often surprised by the fact that much of land in Britain is open country cities. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast. Many of them live in big industrial cities like London, Manchester and Liverpool, gx the flag.

The flag of the United Kingdom is known as the Union Jack,

b)

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the UK, Europe, London, Edinburgh, Cardiff, Great Britain, England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland, the Irish Sea, the England Channel, the Strait of Dover, the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, the Thames, the Severn, the Clyde, the Grampian Mountains, Ben Nevis, the Pennines, the Cambrian Mountains, Manchester, Liverpool.

p. 133, ex. 5

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland covers an area of some 244 thousand square miles. It is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles are separated from Europe by the Strait of Dover and the English Channel. The British Isles are washed by the North Sea in the east and the Atlantic Ocean in the west. The population of Great Britain is about 60 million. The largest cities of the country are London, Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester; Glasgow and Edinburgh. The territory of Great Britain is divided into four parts: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.  England is the richest, the most fertile and most populated part in the country. There are mountains in the north and in the west of England, but all the rest of the territory is a vast plain. In the northwestern part of

England there are many beautiful lakes. This part of the country is called Lake District.

Scotland is a land of mountains. The Highlands of Scotland are among the oldest mountainsinthe world. The highest mountain of Great Britain is in Scotland too. The chain of mountains in Scotland is called the Grampians. Its highest peak is Ben Nevis. It is the highest peak not only in Scotland but in the whole Great Britain as well. In England there is the Pennine Chain. In Wales there are the Cumbrian Mountains. The Thames is over 200 miles long. It flows through the rich agricultural and industrial districts of the country. London, the capital of Great Britain, stands on it.

Geographical position of Great Britain is ra ther good as the country lies on the cross- ways of the see routes from Europe to other parts of the world.

p. 133, ex. 6.

1. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the UK) is situated in Europe.

2. The UK is washed by the Atlantic Ocean in the north and the North Sea in the east.

3. What have you read about the most important rivers in the UK?

4. They took many pictures of Ben Nevis during their expedition to the mpuntains last year.

5. They were watching a film about the industrial cities in the UK when the bell rang.

6. The flag of the United Kingdom is known as the Union Jack.

p 134, ex. 2

People in Britain

1. (D) The English are also famous for their love of animals.

2. (G) Every country in the UK has got its own symbol.

3. (A) A red dragon is probably the oldest symbol of Wales.

4. (C) Green is one of the symbols of Ireland and everybody wears green on St. Patrick’s, the Irish national holiday.

5. (E) People from Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland are not English.

6. (B) They like to speak Welsh, to sing songs in Welsh and when you F travel you can see road signs in Welsh all over Wales 

p. 135, ex. 3.

1. England. In this country people are crazy about gardening.

2. Ireland. In this country you may see different shades and tones of green.

3. Scotland. In this country men wear skits called the kilts.

4. Wales. You can see a red dragon on the flag of this country.

5. Wales. In this country rugby is the national sport.

6. England. The symbol of this country is a red rose.

7. Ireland. The most famous symbol of this country is the shamrock.

8. Scotland. In this country there are many lakes called the lochs.

9. Scotland and Wales. People who live in these countries don’t like when they are called English.

10. Wales. These people are especially.

p. 136, ex. 4

1. Are all the people living there English?

2. Do all the people there speak English?

3. Are they fond of gardening?

4. Do they like animals?

5. Do they like sports?

6. Have they got national songs and traditional dances?

7. Are they proud of their own languages?

8. Do they keep their traditions alive? 

p. 136, ex. 5.

1. David was learning the Welsh language when he was at school.

2. Do the Welshmen wear kilts everyday or on special occasions?

3. Sue hopes that she will travel to Northern Ireland next summer.

4. My classmates are talking about British traditions now.

5. Mr McGregor feels very proud of his son because he has won the bagpipe competition.

6. We have been looking for the information about Great Britain for two hours. 

7. They were reading the story about the Scottish thistle when the beKy rang.

8. Bob had drawn the UK symbols before they came.

p. 138, ex. 2.

1. I tells Ann about Scottish traditions of the Highland Games

and the Eisteddfod Festival in Wales.

р. 138, ех. З

1. nobody;

2. something someone.

p. 139, ex. 4

1. some;

2. somewhere;

3. anything something...everything;

5. anyone; something...any.

P. 139, ex. 5

Think it is vey important to keep traditions. In this way people have a possibility of a great family. Carols before Christmas. There are very many beautiful customs and traditions connected with wedding, birth of children, etc. Yes, there are. One of them is, for example, to kiss under the mistletoe on New Year’s Eve, the Boxing Day; there are also many traditions in the British 

p. 139, ex.6.

1. What penfriends do you want to visit? Whom do you want to visit?

2. Where has Taras never been? Who has never been to Northern Ireland?

3. Who wore a kilt when he was in Scotland? Where did you wear kilt?

4. When will Brian watch a rugby match? What will Brian watch next Saturday?

p. 139, ex. 2.

Ann and Dan are going to visit the Seven Wonders of Ukraine: Sofiyvka, Zaporizhzhia, Khortytsia Island, Chersonesus. 

p. 139, ex. 3.

1. I went to the Bakers’ house this morning but there was nobody at home.

2. The fridge is empty. We need to buy something for dinner tonight.

3. I don’t want to talk to Stewart. I don’t have anything to say to him.

4. I’ve left my wallet at home. Can somebody lend me a bit of money?

Сім чудес України Кам’янедь-Подільський: відома фортеця, що займає площу 121 га, Старе місто річка Смотрич, Замковий міст Стара тя Нова фортеці. Києво-Печерська лавра, Київ: заснована 1051 року монахами Антоніем і Феодосіем в Берестових печерах, центр християнства в 11-му столітті, стала відомою як Лаврський монастир в 12-му столітті, відігравала важливу роль у розвитку культури Київської Русі, має чудові колекції стародавніх рукопи¬сів, тканин, гобеленів, ювелірних виробів, давніх ікон і робіт сучасних майстрів. Софіївка, Умань, Черкаська область: знаходиться в південній частині Умані, на р. Кам’янка, займає площу 179,2 га, приймає 500000 відвідувачів щороку, казкова колекція 546 видів дерев, 1557 видів кущів, 115 видів ліан, 1212 видів трав.

Собор св. Софії, Київ: знаходиться в центрі Києва, належить до 11-18-го ст., один з найголовніших соборів Європи, заснований Ярославом Мудрим, при-свячений св. Софії. Чудовий внутрішній дизайн, що відтворює середньовічну модель всесвіту; тут писались літописи, перша бібліотека в Київській Русі; бага¬то разів руйнувався ворогами, дійшов до наших днів, красиві фрески і мозаїки. Херсонес, Севастополь: давньогрецьке місто-держава, знаходиться в південно-західній частині Криму біля сучасного Севастополя, заснований у 422-421 рр. до н. е. як грецьке місто на південному узбережжі Чорного моря, руїни грецьких, римських, візантійських укріплень, будинків, лазень, церков і стародавнього театру на 3000 глядачів.

Хотинська фортеця: фортеця 13-18-го ст., перше укріплення 9-го ст. по-будоване князем Володимиром на перехресті важливих торгівельних шляхів; пов’язайа з іменами багатьох видатних історичних фігур (Данило Галицький, Штефан III Молдовський, турецький султан Мухамед II, Ян Тарновський з Польщі, Богдан Хмельницький та ін.).

Острів Хортиця, Запоріжжя: найбільший острів на Дніпрі, унікальний при-родно-історичний комплекс, займає територію 3000 га, простягається на 12,5 км із заходу на схід і на 2,5 км із півночі на південь, колись був вкритий густими лісами і степом в південній частині острова з рідкісними видами рослин і трав, крутими схилами в південно-західній частині острова, стародавніми поселеннями, датованими III—II тис. до н. е., має вигідне розташування, пов’язаний з історією запорізького козацтва.

p.142, ex. 1

1. It is situated in the southern part of Eastern Europe.

2. It borders on Russia, Byelorus, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Moldova, and Romania.

3. It is washed by the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov.

4. Yes, there are mountains in the west !» and in the south of Ukraine.

5. Yes, there are many rivers, the biggest and most important rivers being the Dnieper, The Danube, the Southern Bug, the Siversky Donyets, and many others.

6. From wooded hills in the west through flat agricultural lands in the central parts with occasional swampy areas it turns into a steppe flatland with low hills, and from wetland in the north it turns into arid steppes in the south.

7. Ukraine has temperate continental climate with hot summers and cold winters.

p. 142, ex. 6

Kiev Pechersk Lavra is located in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine is one of the oldest monastery in Kievan Rus. The first monastery was built in 1061 and during next centuries the territory of Pechersk Lavra increased by new buildings.

Lavra is the highest degree of Orthodox Church. Pecherska came from Ukrainian word pechera which means a cave where I monks used to live.

The number of buildings is amazing. Most of them were built in the architectural style of Ukrainian Baroque. The territory contains not only churches, an underground cave system, tower but also several museums: Museum of Ukrainian Decorative Folk Art, the Museum of Historical Treasures., the Museum of Microminiature, the Museum of theatrical, all of them are protected by UNESCO as objects of world cultural heritage. It was named one of the Seven Wonders of Ukraine. 

p. 142, ex. 1.

1. Ukraine is situated in the centre of Europe.

2. It borders on Russia, Moldova, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, Poland, Belarus.

3. It is washed by the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov.

4. Yes, there are mountains in Ukraine. They are situated in the west of Ukraine (the Carpathian Mountains) and in the south (the Crimean Mountains).

5. Yes, there are over 131 rivers in Ukraine. They are the Dnipro, the Dniester, the Danube, the Southern Buh, the Siversky Donets and the Tysa.

6. The landscape from west to east of the country is changing in the following way: the highest peak 2061 m in the west and there are flat summits and gentle slopes there.

7. The climate in Ukraine is different in various parts of the country. The climate is mostly moderately continental.

1. (B) Ukrainian Neighbours.

2. (A) Ukrainian Mountains.

3. (C) Water Bodies and Water Resources.

4. (D) The Administrative Division of Ukraine.

5. (E) Climate. 

p. 145, ex, 3.

a)

1. A square kilometer g) a unit for measuring area;

2. to border on h) to share a border with another country;

3. a peak i) the pointed top of a hill or a mountain;

4. a slope b) a surface which is higher on one side than the other;

5. gentle f) not rough;

6. to stretch c) to reach, spread out or cover;

7. a status d) the official legal position or condition of a person, group, country;

8. due to a) owed to someone or something;

9. resources e) something such as useful land, or minerals such as oil or coal, that exists in a country and can be used to increase its wealth.

b)

1. The territory of Ukraine is about 603, 700 thousand square kilometers.

2. Ukraine borders on Russia, Moldova, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, Poland and Belarus.

3. Hoverla is the highest peak in the west of Ukraine.

4. The Carpathian Mountains have flat summits and gentle slopes.

5. Ukraine stretches for 1,300 km from east to west and 900 km from north to south.

6. The geographical position of Ukraine is ideal for of Kyiv and Sevastopol have a special status set by the laws of Ukraine.

p. 145, ex. 4.

1. Ukraine borders on 7 countries (c).

2. The Carpathian Mountains are characterized by flat summits and gentle slopes (a).

3. The Crimean Mountains are in the south of Ukraine (b).

4. Ukraine has over 131 rivers and 3,000 lakes (c).

5. Ukraine consists of 24 regions and the Autonomous (—) Hoverla?

5. What is the highest peak of the Crimean Mou

6. My family usually spends a month or (—) two in (—) sumi Black Sea or the Sea of Azov.

7. (—) Ukraine consists of 24 regions and the Autonomous Republic of (—) Crimea.

8. My grandparents live in (—) Rivne.

9. The cities of Kyiv and Sevastopol have special status set by the Sea of Azov is much warmer that the climate of the rest of country.

p. 146, ex. 6

Ukraine is situated in the south-east of Europe. It borders on Russia, Belarus, Moldova, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland and Romania. The territory of Ukraine is 603 700 km2. The territory of Ukraine is mostly flat.

There are the Carpathian Mountains in the west and the Crimean Mountains in the south, but they are not high.The main rivers are the Dnieper, the Dniester, the Buh, the Donets and others. The Dnieper is one of the longest European rivers and one of the main sources of hydroelectric power in the country.

The coasts of the Azov Sea and the Black

Sea are good for ports.We have quite a lot of big sea ports, for example, Odesa, Kherson, Mykolaiv, Izmail, Mariupol and Kerch.

The geographical position of Ukraine is very favorable because the country lies on the crossroads of the ways from Asia to Europe.Since the times of Kyivan Rus Ukrainian roads have been used for trade contacts.Due to favorable climatic condi-tions, Ukraine is traditionally an agricul-tural country. Wheat, maize and other corns, vegetables, all kinds of fruit are grown here. The coun-try is rich in natural resources, such as iron ore, coal, non-ferrous metals, oil, gas. It has developed a varied industry, con-centrated mostly in and around big cities, such as Kyiv, Zaporizhia, Dnipropctrovsk, Odesa. Kharkiv. Lviv. Mvkolaiv and oth- ers. Ukraine produces planes and ships, lorries and buses, electronic equipment and agricultural machines, TV and radiosets and other goods.

p. 146, ex. 7

My native city is Kharkov. I have been living here for 17 years and have a lot of recollections connected with this city. The history of Kharkov dates back to the 17th century. Nowadays it’s a large city with a population of about 1.6 million of people. In Kharkov there are a lot of places of interest, and every year the city is visited by many tourists from different countries. My favourite place is Gorky Park. There you can escape from the noise of the city streets and enjoy the freshness of air un- der the canopy of park trees. Gorky Park is very popular with children. There they can hire roller-skates or ride a horse, or take photos with a monkey. There are a lot of other different attractions: swing boats, merry-go rounds, dodgems, up-and-down roundabouts, a big wheel and others. Multicoloured balloons arid ice-creams are sold everywhere.

Adults meanwhile can rest in one of the cafes or go to see a movie in the "Park" cin-ema. For sport-fanciers there are tennis- courts, a swimming pool and a stadium. There are lots of other sights in our city and I’m sure they are not the last to feast eyes by their beauty and magnificence. All my life is closely connected with this city. I'm

happy to live here as I really love this city and I’ll never change it for any other place

p. 147, ex. 2, People in Ukraine

Ukrainians are tolerant, hospitable, reserved and kind people. They are also open-hearted, warm and generous, hard-working and skillful, brave, determined and ready for self sacrifice. Ukrainians are passionate and talented.

1. F. It is impossible to call people of that time Ukrainians. They were Slavs, the ancestors of Ukrainians.

2. T. Nominally we do. Though on the other hand, many political decisions in our state are taken under the influence of western states and their financial institutions.

3. T. During the latest census [перепис населення] more than 50% of people considered themselves Ukrainians and Ukrainian their native language, though there live many Russians, Byelorussians, Poles, Moldavians, Jews, Greeks, and representatives of other peoples.

4. F. According to UNESCO it occupies the 22nd place in the world, though nowadays when the population of Ukraine is decreasing, it may occupy an even lower position.

5. T. Yes, they are. Besides, Ukrainians are hard-working, talented, brave, generous, and so on.

6. F. The study of Ukrainian folklore shows that most Ukrainians do have sense

8. F. It gave not only musicians, artists, and poets, but also scientists and engineers like Korolyov, Sikorskiy, and many, many others.

p. 148, ex. 4.

80% of Ukrainian people describe themselves as tolerant people.

73% of Ukrainian people describe themselves as hospitable to foreigners.

71% of Ukrainian people describe themselves as reserved people. Ukrainian language occupies the 22nd place among the world languages and the place after Russian among the Slavonic languages.

P.148, ex. 5 

1. What cities in Ukraine did you visit?

2. home?

3. Did you have many chances.

4. Do you think they are reserve?

5. Do U way?

6. Did you taste any national dishes'

Did you stay at a hotel or at someone’s peaking to common people in Ukraine? krainians resemble the English in any?

7. Did you hear Ukrainian folk songs?

p. 148, ex. 6.

1. Everybody is saying that Nadal will win the match, but I’m not so sure.

2. If anybody has any questions, they’re welcome to come and ask me.

3. Nobody in my family eats meat.

4. Somebody stole my wallet yesterday. He took it from my desk.

5. Helena sent twenty job applications but nobody replied.

6. My home town is the same as it was twenty years ago; nothing has changed! 

p. 150, ex. 1.

1. Great Britain consists of four parts.

2. I have never been to Scotland.

3. I am staying at the Hilton Hotel.

4. I was in London last year.

5. My friends sometimes invite me to spend my holidays with them in London.

6. I do not go to the south every year.

7. The Severn is the longest river in Great Britain.

p. 150, ex. 2.

1. You will not see your friends before you leave Kyiv.

2. I am not going to stay in Lviv for a month.

3. I have not visited the famous park in Uman.

4. Do not find a few pictures of the Carpathians.

5. There are 3 not many rivers in the place where I live.

6. We did not learn about the geographical position of Ukraine at the last lesson. 

p. 150, ex. 3.

1. Why do boys like football?

2. When can they go cycling in the Carpathians?

3. What school championship has our team won?

4. Who is travelling around Western Ukraine now?

5. What stories did my granddad use to tell me?

6. Where has Mary been swimming for an I hour? 

p. 150, ex, 4.

The Traditional Dance of Ukraine.

Ukrainian musical culture, has its roots in the ancient Slavic music. As a result, most Ukrainian music and dance are associated with the folk calendar, harvest, and life-cycle events. My life-cycle songs, especially wedding songs are based on dance rhythms. One of the examples of such a dance is "Arcan" ("The Lasso"). The Ukrainian music is played on the violin, tsymbaly, kobza, bandura, turban, and bagpipes. Many of the dynamic and colourful folk dances of Ukraine reflect a rural or Cossack lifestyle. The oldest dances are the khorovody, the agricultural dance games which are associated with the cult of the sun. Originally, folk dances are either accompanied by songs or by instruments. Introduced in the late 18th century, classical ballet developed under the European influence and attained high standards. Ukraine has six theatres for opera and ballet performances.

8. are associated;

9. are either accompanied;

10. was developed;

11. attained;

p. 152, ex. 6 

Many traditions in Ukraine and in my region are connected with Christian holidays. In the bottom right picture one of such rituals is depicted. On Christmas night young people walk about towns and villages singing carols in which they proclaim that Jesus is born and wish happiness in the year to come. They wear national costumes and those of Biblical characters, and the main item they carry is a hand-made star with a lantern inside symbolizing the star that the Magi saw when Jesus was born. They come to people’s homes singing carols and get ip.

p. 152, ex. 7

Dear Mary

Thanks for your letter in which you ask me to tell about Ukrainian culture and lifestyle. Well, Ukrainian culture is so ancient and rich and multifaceted that even dozens of letters will not be enough to describe it. Volumes have been written on it, but nevertheless I will try to describe some of the traditions and customs of my people in every letter. I should say that in big cities people are forgetting traditions of their ancestors, though some enthusiasts are trying to revive them. For the larger part traditions are preserved in rural areas in central and western regions of Ukraine. So, there is a tradition among the young girls in Ukraine to tell fortunes on the night before St. Andrew’s day which is celebrated on December 13 (the Orthodox church has its own calendar, the so-called old-style). There are many ways to tell fortunes and this is only one of them. Taking flour [борошно] from home girls gather at one of their fiends house. To make dough [тісто] they go to the river  three times and bring water in their mouths. The cakes are baked in the oven and then put on a bench. Then the hostess lets a hungry male-dog in. Whose cake he eats the first, that girl will be the first to marry. Are there similar traditions in England? Write me soon.

Ann.

p. 154, ex. 1.

1. Yes, I sometimes read the magazines, but not very often.

2. I like reading magazines for teenagers.

3. I am interested in music and films.

4. My family members like to read our local newspaper with the latest news.

5. No, I have never tried my hand at editing a school newspaper.

6. Yes, I think the editor has to know everything that is published in the newspaper.

p. 155. ex. 2.

Як я був редактором аграрної газети (Марк Твен).

У мене були сумніви, коли я давав згоду на те, щоб стати редактором аграр-ної газета. Та мені були потрібні гроші. Постійний редактор газети збирався у відпустку, тож я прийняв його пропозицію і його місце.

Я залюбки ретельно працював весь тиждень. Новий номер відправили до друкарні, і я чекав на день виходу газети з надією, що моє старання помітять. Коли я вийшов із кабінету, група чоловіків і хлопчаків, що стояли біля сходів, розступилася, і я почув, як дехто з них казав: "Це він!" Мені, звичайно, було приємно бачити їхню увагу. Наступного ранку я побачив біля сходів схожу групу людей, що стояли тут і там, і далі вулицею, з цікавістю розглядаючи мене. Я почув, як хтось сказав: "Поглянь на його очі!" Мені, звичайно, було приємно. Я піднявся короткими сходами і, підійшовши до дверей, почув веселі голоси і дзвінкий сміх; та коли я відчинив двері, я побачив, як двоє молодих людей вистрибнули на вулицю зі страшенним гуркотом. Я здивувався. Десь за півгодини потому увійшов літній джентльмен. Його обличчя було приємним, але якимось суворим. На моє запрошення він сів. Здавалося, що його непокоїть якась думка. Він зняв свого капелюха, поклав його на підлогу й дістав з нього червону шовкову хустинку та примірник нашої газети. Протерши хустинкою окуляри, він запитав:

— Ви новий редактор?

Я відповів, що так.

— Ви до цього коли-небудь були редактором аграрної газети?

— Ні, — сказав я, — це моя перша спроба.

— А чи маете ви практичний досвід у сільському господарстві?

— Думаю, що ні.

— Щось мені це й підказувало, — відповів літній джентльмен. — Я хочу за-читати вам те, що мені це підказувало. Це редакторська стаття. Послухайте і пересвідчіться, чи це ви написали: «Ріпу ні в якому разі не треба смикати, це її травмує. Набагато краще послати хлопчика, щоб він потрусив дерево». Що ви на це скажете? Це ж ви написали?

— Що я на це скажу? Ну, я вважаю, що це добре. Не сумніваюсь, що кожного року мільйони плодів ріпи псуються через те, що їх зривають недостиглими, а якщо послати хлопчика, щоб той потрусив дерево...

— Хай твою бабцю трусять! Ріпа не росте на деревах!

І літній джентльмен встав, порвав газету на дрібні шматки й розбив деякі речі своїм ціпком, ще й сказав, що корова й та знає більше за мене, а потім вийшов, грюкнувши дверима — словом, поводився так, що я зрозумів, що він чимось незадоволений. Та оскільки я не знав, з якої причини, то нічим не міг йому допомогти.

Незабаром до кабінету вбіг блідий чоловік, зупинився на певній відстані від мене, і, розглянувши з цікавістю моє обличчя протягом якогось часу, дістав із кишені піджака примірник нашої газети й сказав:

— Ось, це ви написали. Прочитайте мені, швидко! Зніміть з мене тягар. Мені зле.

Я прочитав те, що мені запропонували, і в міру того, як із моїх вуст виходили речення, я бачив, як чоловікові стає легше, збудження полишало його обличчя, а спокій і умиротворення змінили його риси.

— «Гуано — хороші птахи, та за ними потрібно ретельно доглядати. Взимку їх треба тримати в теплому місці, де вони змогли б висиджувати пташенят. А зараз перейдемо до гарбузів. Ці ягоди — найулюбленіші в мешканців Нової Англії, які в приготуванні фруктових пирогів надають їм перевагу в порівнянні з агрусом, а в годуванні корів — полуницям. Гарбуз — єдина рос¬лина з-поміж цитрусових, що росте на півночі, але ЇЇ розведення на ділянках втрачає популярність, бо він не дає тіні...»

Збуджений слухач підбіг до мене, потиснув руку і сказав:

— От-от — досить. Тепер я знаю, що зі мною все гаразд, бо ви прочитали те саме, що і я — слово в слово. Бо коли я прочитав це вранці, то подумав, що збожеволів... До побачення, ви зняли з мене величезний тягар.

Мені стало трохи незручно, та незабаром я перестав цим перейматися, бо до кабінету увійшов постійний редактор!

Редактор виглядав сумним і засмученим. Він поглянув на меблі, розтрощені літнім джентльменом і двома молодими фермерами, а потім сказав:

— Дуже прикро — дуже-дуже прикро. Та не це найгірше — боюсь, що репу,- тацію газети знищено. Дійсно, до цього на нашу газету ніколи не було такого попиту, ніколи не продавали такого великого тиражу, та чи хтось захоче стати знаменитим через своє божевілля? Мій любий друже, буду з тобою відвер¬тий — на вулиці повно людей, які прагнуть поглянути на тебе, бо думають, що ти божевільний. І в них є всі підстави так. вважати, прочитавши те, що ти написав в редакторській статті. З якого дива ти взяв собі в голову, що можеш бути редактором аграрної газети? Ти нічого не тямиш у сільському господар¬стві, і я хочу, щоб ти попрощався з цією посадою і забрався геть. Я більше не хочу у відпустку, особливо якщо ти сидітимеш на моєму стільці. Я хочу щоб ти пішов. Чому ти не сказав мені, що нічого не тямиш у сільському господарстві?

— Що сказати тобі, кукурудзяному стеблу, капустяній голові, сину кольрабі? Мені ще ціколи не казали таких образливих слів. Я скажу тобі, що я займаюсь

Мені ще ніколи не казали таких образливих слів. Я скажу тобі, що я займаюсь редакторською справою вже 14 років, і це вперше я чую, що треба щось знати, щоб бути редактором газети. Хто йде на посаду редактора аграрної газети? Це, як правило, люди, які зазнали поразки в поезії, в пригодницькій літера¬турі, психологічній драматургії, в міській пресі — вони нарешті опиняються в сільському господарстві. І ти розказуєш мені про газетний бізнес! Я йду, сер. Після того, як зі мною повелись так, як ви повелися зі мною, я, звичайно, волію піти. Та я виконав свій обов’язок. Я казав, що зможу зробити газету цікавою для всіх верств — і зробив. Я казав, що зможу довести тираж до 20 тисяч примірників — і довів. І я залучив до газети найвишуканіших читачів, які коли-небудь були в якоїсь аграрної газети. У цій ситуації програли ви, а не я. До побачення.

p. 158, ex. 2.

1. to bang g) to hit smth hard, making a loud noise;

2. to relieve h) to reduce someone’s pain or unpleasant feeling;

3. a turnip e) a large P round pale yellow vegetable that grows under the ground, or the plant that produces it;

4. a cane f) a long thin stick with a curved handle that you can use to help you walk or punish other people;

5. to string c) to move suddenly and quickly in a particular direction;

6. an instinct d) a natural tendency to behave in a particular way;

7. to edit a) to prepare a book, piece of film etc for printing or broadcasting by removing the mistakes;

8. a passageway b) a long, narrow connecting way, esp. inside the building.

p. 158, ex. 3.

1. The newspaper editor edits letters before printing them.

2. Tom strung out of bed and ran downstairs.

3. He pulled all the turnips in a half- ripe condition.

4. He led me down a narrow passageway.

5. Most animals have an instinct to protect their young.

6. We relieved to hear that you had arrived safely.

7. I was often punished with a cane when I was a child.

8. Stop banging on the door. 

p. 159, ex. 6.

1. I had some doubts when I agreed to edit an agricultural paper b),

2. I was. naturally pleased with their attention c).

3. Great care is necessary in looking after the turnip a).

4. It is the first time I ever heard of man’s having to know anything in order to edit the newspaper b). 

p. 159, ex. 7.

1. D. I took the offer of the regular editor of the paper.

A. I was naturally pleased with the attention of a group of men and boys.

2. F, The old person who was displeased by the paper, got up, tore his paper into small pieces, broke several things with his cane, went out and banged the door after him.

3. B. But the editor has taken a great load off the mind of a long pale man.

4. C. After his coming back the regular editor was displeased with the reputation of the paper.

5. E. Nevertheless, the m itor has done his duty.

p. 160, ex. 9.

1. False. The young man did not agree to edit an agricultural magazine but an agricultural newspaper.

2. True. The new editor thought that every year millions and millions of turnips were spoiled by being pulled in a half-ripe condition.

3. False. In the winter the pumpkin should be kept in a cool place with the temperature of 5-15 degrees above zero.

4. False. The regular editor was looking sad after his holiday.

5. True. The street out here is full of people who think that you are crazy.

6. True. You are the loser in this situation, not me.

p. 160, ex. 10

Judging by his final words he didn’t.

p. 160, ex. 11.

1. The new editor was a person to surprise everyone because he decided to edit an agricultural newspaper but he knew nothing of agriculture.

2. He decided he could edit an agricultural newspaper because he had been in editorial business for fourteen yearn

p. 162, ex. 1.

1. Yes, I remember my first day at school very well.

2. My first impression was good. I thought that the building was really big and great.

3. My classroom was a comfortable and light room.

4. I liked my first icher very much.

Міс Хані

(Роальд Дал)

Матильда трохи спізнилася зі школою. Більшість дітей починає ходити до початкової школи в п’ять років, а то й раніше, а батьки Матильди не дуже пере-ймалися освітою доньки. От вони й забули про те, щоб завчасно її влаштувати, їй було п’ять із половиною років, коли вона вперше зайшла до школи. Сільська школа для молодших учнів була цегляною спорудою і звалася1 «Початкова школа Кранчем Холл». У ній вчилося близько 250 дітей від п’яти до майже дванадцяти років.. Матильду, звичайно, зарахували до наймолодшого класу, де вчилося 18 хлоп¬чиків та дівчаток її віку. їхню вчительку звали міс Хані, і їй було років 23-24. У неї було миле овальне личко, блакитні очі, а її волосся було світло-каштановим. Вона була струнка і тендітна. О Міс Дженіфер Хані була людиною голос. Вона рідко посміхалася, проте кожен учень у класі обожнював її. Зда-валося, що вона розуміє всі страхи маленьких дітей, які прийшли до класу, де мають слухатися і робити, що скажуть... Після звичного зачитування прізвищ дітей міс Хані видала кожному учневі по новенькому зошиту.

— Сподіваюся, ви всі взяли з собою олівці, — сказала вона.

— Так, міс Хані, — відповіли вони.

— Добре. Так от, сьогодні для кожного з вас — найперший день у школі. Це початок щонайменше 11 років навчання, яке всі ви пройдете. І шість із них ви проведете тут, у Кранчем Холл. Вашу директорку звуть міс Транчбулл. Я вам дещо про неї розповім задля вашого ж добра. Вона наполягає на суворій дисципліні в школі, і якщо ви дослухаєтесь до моєї поради, то докладатимете всіх зусиль, щоб добре поводитися в її присутності^ Ніколи не сперечайтеся з нею. Ніколи не суперечте їй. Завжди робіть те, що вона каже. Якщо ви потрапите їй під гарячу руку, вона вас знищить, як морквину в овочерізці. Всі ви вчините мудро, якщо запам’ятаєте, що місс Транчбулл діє дуже суворо стосовно порушників шкільної дисципліни. Я, — продовжувала міс Хані, — хочу допомогти вам дізнатися якнайбільше, доки ви в школі, бо я знаю, що це в подальшому полегшить вам життя. Так от, до кінця цього тижня я очікую, що кожен із вас знатиме напам’ять таблицю множення на два. А через рік, я сподіваюсь, ви знатимете всі таблиці множення до дванадцяти. Якщо знатимете, це вам страшенно допоможе.

p. 164, ex. 2.

1. A process of learning and getting knowledge at school, college, (y university — education).

2. Long before the time something is expected, or happens — in advance.

3. To speak louder when you are angry — to raise voice.

4. A plan or preparation you make for some event — arrangement.

5. Very seldom — rarely. 6. To feel that something is important and worth worrying about — to care about.

7. To begin studying at school — to start school.

8. To like somebody or something very much — to adore.

9. A feeling when you are afraid of something or somebody — fear. 

p. 164, ex. 3.

to start school — to go to school for the first time; to care much to worry about smth or smb very much; education — a process of getting knowledge at school; arrangement — previous agreement to do smth; in advance — do earlier or beforehand; to raise voice — to say smth loudly; rarely — not often; fear — to scare smth; to adore — to love smth 

p. 164, ex. 4.

1. Matilda was a little late in starting school.

2. Matilda’s parents didn’t care much about their daughter’s education.

3. So theyvhad forgotten to make the proper arrangements in advance.

4. Miss Jennifer Honey was a mild and quiet person who never raised her voice.

5. She rarely smiled but every child in the class adored her. 

p. 165, ex. 5.

a) Matilda’s parents didn’t care much about their daughter’s education so they had forgotten to make the proper arrangements in advance.

b) The village school for younger children was a brick building called Crunchem Hall Primary School. There were about two hundred and

fifty pupils aged from five to just under twelve years old.

c) Miss Honey was twenty-three or twenty-four. She had a lovely pale oval face with blue eyes and her hair was light-brown. Her body was slim and fragile. Miss Jennifer Honey was a mild and quiet person who never raised her voice.

She rarely smiled but every child in the class adored her. She seemed to understand all the fears of small children who for the first time their lives had to come into the classroom and to obey orders. 

p. 165 ex. 7.

1. Most children begin Primary School at five or even just before

2. Matilda’s parents had forgotten to make the proper-arrangements b).

3. The village school for younger children was a brick building c).

4. Miss Honey had a lovely pale oval face with blue eyes b).

5. She seemed to understand all the fears of small children who for the first time in their lives had to come into the classroom c).

6. Miss Honey said, «It is the beginning of at least eleven long years of schooling that all of you are

p. 166, ex. 8

D, В, С, A, E.

p. 166, ex. 6.

1. D. Matilda’s parents had forgotten to make the proper arrangements for school in advance.

2. B. Matilda has come to the bottom class of Crunchem Hall Primary School.

3. C. The author describes Miss Honey’s appearance.

4. A. Miss Honey is telling pupils about their studying t school.

p. 166, ex. 9.

The text is about Matilda’s first day at Crunchem Hall Primary

chool c).

p. 166, ex. 10.

1. True.

2. False. There were about two hundred and fifty pupils aged from five to just under twelve years old at Crunchem Hall Primary School. 3. True.

4. False. Their teacher was called Miss Honey, and she was j twenty-three or twenty-four.

5. False. She rarely smiled and every child in the class adored her.

6. True.

p. 166, ex. 11.

1. Most children begin Primary School at five or even just before.

2. The village school for younger children was a brick building called Crunchem Hall Primary School.

3. Miss Jennifer Honey was twenty-three

p. 168, ex. 1.

1. Yes, I like to read books.

2. No, I prefer watching TV to reading books.

3. I do not go to the library very often.

Читачка

(Роальд Дал) Сзг

Брат Матильди Майкл був нормальним хлопчиком, а от його сестра всіх здивувала. У півтора року її мова була ідеальною, і вона знала стільки слів, скільки й більшість дорослих. Батьки прозвали її галасливим базікалом. Вони їй казали, що маленькі дівчатка мають бути на виду, проте їх не має бути чутно. У трирічному віці Матильда навчилась читати, вивчаючи газети й журнали, що валялися в будинку. У віці чотирьох років вона вже вміла швидко і добре читати і, звичайно, почала шукати інші книжки. Єдиною книжкою вдома була «Швидка кулінарія», що належала мамі. Вона прочитала її від обкладинки до обкладинки і вивчила напам'ять всі рецепти. Тоді вона вирішила, що їй потрібно щось цікавіше.

— Тату, — сказала вона, — чи не міг би ти купити мені книжку?

— Книжку? — запитав він. — Навіщо тобі та книжка?

— Читати, тату.

— Чим тобі не подобається телевізор, люба? У нас чудовий телевізор, а ти просиш книжку. Ти стала балуваною, дитино!

Майже щодня по обіді Матильда залишалася вдома сама. Її брат (на п'ять років старшин за неї) ходив до школи, батько ходив на роботу, а мати їздила грати в лото до міста за вісім миль. Коли батько відмовився купити їй книжку, Матильда вирішила піти до громад¬ської бібліотеки в селі. Прийшовши, вона відрекомендувалася бібліотекарці, місіс Фелпс. Дівчинка запитала, чи можна трохи посидіти й почитати книжку. Місіс Фелпс здивувалася, що така маленька дівчинка прийшла сама, без бать¬ків. Але вона люб’язно сказала дівчинці, що, звичайно, можна і вона їй рада.

— Скажіть, будь ласка, де дитячі книжки? — запитала вона.

— Вони он там, на нижніх полицях, — відповіла їй місіс Фелпс.

— Хочеш я знайду тобі книжку з багатьма малюнками?

— Ні, дякую, — сказала Матильда, — я впевнена, що впораюсь.

Із того часу щодня по обіді, щойно мати їхала грати в лото, Матильда йшла до бібліотеки. Дорога забирала лише 10 хвилин, і це дозволяло їй тихенько по¬сидіти в затишному куточку дві години й читати одну кішжку за одною. Коли вона прочитала всі дитячі книжки в бібліотеці, то почала шукати щось інше. Місіс Фелпс весь час із великою цікавістю спостерігала за нею. Тож вона підійшла до дівчинки й запитала: 

— Тобі допомогти, Матильдо?

— Я думаю, що ще мені почитати, — відповіла Матильда. — Я закінчила всі дитячі книжки. 

ДИТЯЧІ книжки.

— Ти хочеш сказати, що переглянула всі малюнки?

— Так, але крім цього я також прочитала книжки.

***

За тиждень Матильда закінчила "Великі сподівання" на 411 сторінок.

— Вона мені дуже сподобалась, — сказала вона місіс Фелпс. — А містер Діккенс ще що-небудь написав?

— Дуже багато чого, — сказала місіс Фелпс. — Вибрати тобі ще одну? Протягом наступних шести місяців Матильда під пильним оком місіс Фелпс прочитала книги Чарлза Діккенса, Шарлотги Бронте, Джейн Остін, Томаса Гарді, Мері Вебб, Редьярда Кіплінга та інших...

Одного разу місіс Фелпс сказала:

— Чи ти знаєш, що в громадських бібліотеках, як наша, можна брати книжки додому?

— Я про це не знала, місіс Фелпс, — відповіла Матильда. — Можна й мені їх

брати?

— Звичайно, — сказала місіс Фелпс. — Коли вибереш книжку, яку хочеш прочитати, неси її до мене, щоб я могла зробити відмітку, і вона твоя на два тижні. Можеш взяти не одну, якщо хочеш.

p. 170, ex. 2.

A chatterbox — smb, who talks all the time; a library — a place, where you can take books to read at home; a librarian — a person, who works in the library and gives you books; to introduce — to say, what is your name; to borrow — to take smth for some time and then give it back; to read from cover to cover — to read the whole book from beginning^ to end; to learn by heart — to remember every word and be able to foe retell it.

p. 170, ex. 3.

1. To tell somebody your name and give some general information about you — to introduce.

2. To learn something (a poem, a story) so that you can remember it very well — to learn by heart.

3. To take something for a short time and then to give it back — to borrow.

4. A person who talks all the time — a chatterbox.

5. A place where there are a lot of books and you can borrow them without paying money — a library.

6. A person who works in the library and helps you to choose books few a librarian.

p. 170, ex. 4.

1. The parents called her a noisy chatterbox.

2. By the time she was three, Matilda had taught herself to read by studying newspapers and magazines.

3. Matilda went to the public library in the village.

4. She had read this book from cover to cover.

5. Matilda introduced herself to the librarian.

6. Public libraries allow you to borrow books.

p. 171, ex. 6.

1. Matilda was a child to surprise everyone.

2. She could read at the age of three.

3. She asked her father to buy her a book because there was only one book at home and she had already read it.

4. She went to the library to read books. 

p. 171, ex. 7.

1. Matilda was a child to surprise everyone because she could talk very well a).

2. Matilda asked her father to buy her a book c).

3. One day Matilda decided to go to the public library b).

4. When she went to library, she read all the children’s books a).

p. 171, ex. 8.

1. C. By the age of one and a half her speech was perfect and she knew as many words as most grown-ups.

2. D. The walk took only ten minutes and this allowed her two hours to sit quietly in a cosy corner and read one book after another.

3. B. Within a week, Matilda had finished Great Expectations which contained four hundred and eleven pages.

4. A. "When you have chosen the book you want, bring it to me so I can make a note of it and it’s yours for two weeks. You can take more one if you wish".

p. 172, ex. 9.

The text is about a clever girl who wanted to read books b).

p. 172, ex. 10.

1. True.

2. False. By the time she was three, Matilda had taught herself to read by studying newspapers and magazines that lay around the house.

3. True.

4. False. Her father did not allow her to buy a book.

5. True.

6. False. Over the next six months Matilda read the books by Charles Dickens, Charlotte Bronte, Jane Austin, Thomas Hardy, Mary s'Webb, Rudyard Kipling and others.  

p. 172, ex. 12.

1. Matilda was a child to surprise everyone because by the age of one and a half her speech was perfect and she knew as many words as most grown-ups and by the time she was three, Matilda had taught herself to read by studying newspapers and magazines that lay around the house.

2. She liked going to the library because there was a cosy corner there 

p. 174, ex. 1.

1. Music means a lot for me because I listen to music every day.

2. Orchestra is a group of musicians playing different instruments.

3. No, not anybody can play in the orchestra, only particular musicians.

4. The conductor usually shows everybody in the orchestra what to do and when to start.

p. 174 ex. 2.

У шкільному оркестрі

(за оповіданням Пенсі Наміоки «Наймолодший Янг і його жахливий слух») Ми виявили, що в школі е оркестр, який збирається на репетицію після уро-ків двічі на тиждень. Мої батьки вважали, що мені й Кім дуже поталанило, і вони одразу записали нас до оркестру. Вони навіть не спитали нас, хочемо ми туди чи ні.

Перш ніж узяти нас із Кім до оркестру, диригент влаштував для нас прослухо- вування, тобто попросив нас зіграти декілька акордів поодинці.

Він виглядав задоволеним, коли почув, як Кім грає на віолончелі. Він одразу ж посадив її в перших рядах виконавців.

Далі була моя черга зіграти на скрипці. Він зупинив мене вже після четвертого і задумливо подивився на мене: 

— Ти не бажаєш спробувати зіграти на трикутнику?

Напевне я мав образитись, та насправді мені захотілося погодитись. Щоб грати на трикутнику, не потрібно мати музичного слуху, оскільки треба лише стукати по ньому паличкою. І треба було вчасно приходити, а це в мене виходило добре. Крім того, трикутник видає лише слабенький брязкіт, тож особливо не нашкодить. Проте я знав, що батьки будуть засмучені.

—У мене е власна скрипка, — невесело сказав я диригенту. — Батьки очікують, що я гратиму на ній.

Він зітхнув:

Я знаю, які бувають батьки.

Він посадив мене в самому останньому ряду скрипалів, якнайдалі від глядачів. Коли я зайняв своє місце, хлопчик, що сидів за одним пюпітром зі мною, сказав:

— Привіт, схоже ти будеш моїм напарником.

То був Метью, мій однокласник, і я зрадів, коли його побачив.

Потім диригент підняв паличку, і оркестр заграв.

Граючи з іншими, я робив такий фокус: водив смичком туди-сюди, майже не торкаючись струн. Це допомагало всім. Це допомагало мені; допомагало іншим виконавцям; допомагало диригенту; і більш за все допомагало глядачам. Після декількох тактів ми зупинились, поки диригент спробував підбадьорити тромбоніста, який видавав булькаючі звуки, коли намагався дути в інструмент. Метью звернувся до мене:

— Ти граєш не дуже голосно — я тебе зовсім не чув.

— І обі пощастило, — відповів я йому. Він здавався спантеличеним, та в мене не було часу пояснювати йому, бо ди-ригент знову підняв паличку. Метью грав із замріяним виразом на обличчі. Я не міг визначити, гарно він грав чи ні, але було очевидно, що йому подобається грати. А Після репетиції диригент попросив Кім залишитись і зіграти йому коротенький твір. Я чекав на неї в коридорі, щоб разом піти додому. Поки я чекав, до мене підійшов Метью.

скрипці.

— Так, відповів я. Може, це був шанс знайти татові нового учня?

— Хочеш

— Мені дуже б хотілося, але мої батьки не можуть собі цього дозволити.

— Мій батько бере недорого, — палко сказав я, хоча не знав, скільки батько бере. Та я був впевнений, що він буде радий новому учню, особливо якщо той по-справжньому любить музику.

Кім вийшла, посміхаючись:

— Диригент хоче, щоб я зіграла соло на першому ж концерті!

Я був радий за сестру, і навіть Метью мав задоволений вигляд.

— Це чудово! — сказав він.

— Це мій напарник Метью, —«казав я. — А це моя оестраф

— Привіт. Мене звуть Кім, — перебила дівчинка. мір

— Я чув, як ти щойно грала, — сказав Метью Кім. — Ти справді гарно граєш! Кім знову посміхнулася:

Я граю жахливо. Ти кажеш це просто із ввічливості.

Насправді ж вона так не думала. Відповідати так, коли нас хвалять, нас на- 

вчили батьки.

— Ну, тоді я побіг, — промовив Метью, проте він, здавалося, нікуди не поспішав. Кім також не хотілося, щоб він ішов — особливо коли він щойно сказав, що захоплюється її грою.

— Хочеш зайти до нас додому і познайомитись із моїми старшими братом і сестрою? Вони теж грають на музичних інструментах. .

Метью розплився в посмішці:

— Звичайно. Якщо твої батьки не заперечуватимуть.

— Вони будуть раді познайомитися з другом мого брата, — сказала вона йому. Мені сподобалось те, як вона це сказала — ніби Метью справді був мені другом, ніби в мене було багато друзів.

p. 177, ex. 2.

1. A conductor d) a person who stands in front of the orchestra and directs their performance.

2. An audition e) a short performance given by a musician, so that a conductor can . decide if he is suitable to play in the orchestra.

3. A measure (bar) f) one of short sections of equal length that a piece of music is divided into, and the notes that are in it.

4. A triangle g) a simple musical instrument, made of metal, in the shape of a triangle, that you hit with a small metal stick.

5. A stand partner a) a person who shares with you a place in front of the music stand in the orchestra;

6. A stick i) a small thin stick, used by a person who conducts the orchestra.

7. A trombone b) a large musical instrument that you blow into, with a sliding to be used to change the note.

8. A rehearsal c) time that is spent practicing a piece of music in preparation for public performance. 9. A charge for smth h) to ask an amount of money for goods and

Services.

p. 177, ex. 3.

1. Before Kim and I could play in the orchestra, the conductor gave us an audition.

2. He stopped me after only four measures and looked at ff-me thoughtfully.

3. "Would you like to try the triangle instead?"

4. The boy sharing a music stand with me said, "Hi, looks like I’ll be your stand partner".

5. The conductor raised his stick, and the orchestra began to play.

6. After a few bars we stopped playing while the conductor tried to cheer up the trombone player.

7. After the rehearsal the conductor asked Kim to stay behind and play a short piece for him.

8. "My father’s lessons are cheap", I said eagerly, although I didn’t actually know how much Father charged.

p. 178, ex. 5.

1. We discovered that our school had an after-school orchestra which met twice a week b).

2. Before Kim and her I could play in the orchestra, we had to play a few bars of music alone b).

3. The conductor offered the boy to play the triangle a).

4. When I took my place, the boy sharing a music stand with me said, "Hi, looks like I'll be your stand partner" b).

5. "1 heard your sister tell the conductor that your father is a violin teacher, too" a).

6. The boy felt sure that his father would love to have a new student, especially someone who really liked music b).

7. When playing together with other people, my trick was to draw my bow back and forth, without quite touching the strings b).

8. Would you like to come to our house and meet my elder brother and sister? They also play p musical instruments b).

p. 179, ex. 6.

1. Kim and her brother did not want to play in the orchestra but their parents singed them up but never asked them.

2. The conductor put Kim near the front of the orchestra.

3. He put Kim's brother in the very last row of the violin section because he played the violin not very well, athew wanted to take the violin lessons.

5. Kim played the cello very well.

6. Kim invited Mathew to their place.

р. 174-179, ex. 7. 

1. F;

2. T;

3. T;

4. F;

5. T;

6. T;

7. F;

8. T.

p. 179, ex. 8.

The text is about a boy and a girl who joined the orchestra a).

p. 180, ex. 9.

1. B. Kim and her brother joined the orchestra.

2. D. The conductor gave Kim and his brother an audition; that is, he asked each of them to play a few bars of music alone.

3. H. The conductor offered the boy to play the triangle.

4. C. A boy, sharing a music stand with Kim’s brother, was Matthew, his classmate.

5. G. After the rehearsal the conductor asked Kim to stay behind and play a short piece for him.

6. F. Matthew wanted to take the violin lessons.

7. E. When Kim came out, she was smiling.

8. A. Kim asked Matthew if he would like to come to their house and meet 

p. 180, ex. 10.

1. The conductor offered Kim’s brother to play the triangle

because he played the violin not very well.

2. The conductor offered Kim to play a solo for their first concert because Kim played.

p. 183, ex. 1.

1. Yes, I like travelling very much.

2. I think that all my trips were exciting but sometimes we had some troubles.

3. I have not read the story "Robinson Crusoe" by Daniel Defoe yet.

4. I would feel very lonely if I happened to live on a desert island because of some reason.

p. 183 ex. 2. 

Я давно хотів побачити весь свій острів. Тож одного чудового ранку я вирушив у подорож через острів на його інший бік. Звичайно, я взяв із собою рушницю. За пояс я запхав найкращу сокирку. Я взяв багато пороху й шроту. До кишені я поклав два шматки сухого печива й добру жменю родзинок. Собака йшов за мною. Я пройшов повз мій літній будиночок і до вечора вийшов до гарної галявини на узбережжі. Краєвид був чудовий. Небо було чисте, повітря тихе. Рівна поверхня води простягалась ген-ген аж до сонця, що сідало. На великій відстані я розгледів землю. Не можна було сказати, чи то був острів, чи американський континент — до нього було миль зо п’ятдесят. Я був впевнений, що якщо це був материк, то я коли-небудь побачу, що від нього відпливає корабель. Якщо ж це був острів, то на ньому могли бути дикуни, зустріти яких небезпечно. Та клопотатися цим зараз не мало сенсу. Виявилось, що цей бік острова був набагато кращим, ніж той, на якому був мій з'амок. Тут були великі відкриті галявини, зелені від трави і духмяні від квітів. Тут також були гарні ліси з багатьма дивовижними деревами і ліанами. Серед дерев я побачив багато зелених папуг, і подумав, як би спіймати одного з них і навчити говорити. Після безлічі невдалих спроб я збив молодого папугу своєю палицею. Він ви-явився добрим бійцем, і дістати його було нелегко. Та нарешті я підняв його і поклав до торби.

Він не був поранений, і я приніс його додому. Пройшло багато часу, перш ніж я навчив його розмовляти. Та зрештою він став найкращим домашнім улю-бленцем і називав мене на ім’я. Крім папуг, у лісі було багато інших птахів. Деякі з них належали до видів, яких я ніколи не бачив. У низині я побачив тварин, схожих на кроликів. Були також тварини, яких я вважав лисицями, проте то були не такі лисиці, як в Англії. Я подорожував лісом дуже повільно, бо хотів побачити все. Часто я проходив за день не більше двох миль. Вночі я іноді спав на дереві, а мій пес вартував унизу. Іноді я замикався в ма-ленькій загороді, яку робив із довгих кілків. Я почувався доволі безпечно, бо ніщо не могло наблизитися до мене, не розбудивши мене.

Вздовж узбережжя були тисячі черепах і повно морських птахів. Я не мав труднощів із пошуками їжі, яка була мені потрібна. Іноді я під-смажував на обід голуба, іноді — соковите м’ясо черепахи, іноді — козятину. Я харчувався по-царському.

Одного дня мій пес впіймав козеня. Я підбіг і схопив його, не даючи поранити. У мене виникла чудова думка забрати його з собою додому. Тож я зробив для нього нашийник і повів його на мотузці, яка була в мене в кишені. Воно було зовсім дике і не хотіло йти. Воно завдало мені стільки клопоту, що я відвів його до свого літнього будиночка і залишив його там.

p. 185, ex. 2.

1. A hatchet h) a small axe with a short handle.

2. A pouch d) a small bag, usually made of leather, and often carried in a pocket or attached to the belt.

3. A stake e) a wooden post that is pointed at one end and pushed into the ground in order to support something or to mark a place.

4. A savage f) an offensive word for somebody who belongs to a tribe that is primitive, not developed and aggressive.

5. A vine g) a climbing plant that produces grapes.

6. A shot b) a bullet or a large number of small metal balls that you fire together from the gun.

7. A powder a) a dry mass of very small pieces of explosive substance.

8. A pen c) a small piece of land surrounded by the fence in which farm animals are

p. 185, ex. 2

1 - h

2 – b

3 – e

4 – f

5 – g

6 – b

7 – a

8 - c

p. 185, ex. 3.

1. In my belt was my best hatchet.

2. In my pouch I had plenty of powder and shot.

3. If it were an island, there might be savages on it whom it would not be safe for me to meet.

4. Sometimes I shut myself up in a little pen made up by tall stakes. 5. Here, too, were fine woods, wi many strange trees and vines. 

p. 185, ex. 5.

1. Robinson Crusoe had long wished to see the whole of his island b).

2. Far in the distance he could see land c).

3. If it were an island, it would not be safe for him to met savages b).

4. He found this side of the island much more beautiful than that where his castle was b).

5. Robinson Crusoe travelled very slowly around the island, for he wished to see everything a).

6. During his travel Robinson Crusoe saw different animals, parrots, turtles and seabirds b). 

p. 186, ex. 6.

1. Robinson Crusoe had long wished to see the whole of his island.

2. Towards evening he came to a fine open place close by the sea.

3. Far in the distance he saw land. 4. Yes, he saw a lot of different animals and birds.

5. At night he sometimes slept in a tree and sometimes he shut himself up in a little pen made by tall stakes.

6. During his travel caught a kid.  

p. 186, ex. 7.

1. G. Robinson Crusoe had long wished to see the whole of his island.

2. E. One fine morning, he set out to travel across to the other side of the island.

3. D. Far in the distance he could see land.

4. F. He saw many green parrots among the trees, so he wanted to catch one of them and teach it to talk.

5. C. In the low grounds Robinson saw some animals that looked like rabbits and foxes.

6. B. At night he sometimes slept in tree, while his dog watched below him.

7. A. One day his dog caught 

p. 187, ex. 8.

The text is about the travel of Robinson Crusoe to the other side of the island,

p. 187, ex. 8

b)

p. 187, ex. 10.

1. The nature of the island was wonderful. He could see large, open fields, green with grass and sweet with flowers, fine woods with many strange trees and vines.

2. Robinson Crusoe had a great journey because he could see beautiful nature and a lot of animals and birds there.

    




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